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Table 3 Results of systematic review with cohort studies of COVID-19 patients—pulmonary function test

From: Radiological and functional lung sequelae of COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Author Follow-up timing after discharge Cohort Size, N PFT abnormalities at follow-up, % (N) Restrictive pattern % (N)
VCmax % predicted < 80% or VCmax < LLN
OR
FVC % predicted < 80% or FVC < LLN
OR
TLC z-score <  − 1.64 or TLC % predicted < 80%
Obstructive pattern % (N)
FEV1/FVC < 70%
OR
FEV1/VCmax < LLN %
Diffusion Impairment % (N)
DLCO < 80% predicted
OR
DLCO < LLN
You [17] 38 ± 13.4 days after discharge 18 38.9% (7) 16.7% (3) 16.7% (3) NA
Huang [18] 30 days after discharge 57 NA 10.5% (6) 1.8% (1) 52.6% (30)
Zhao [20] 64–93 days after discharge 55 25.5% (14) 10.9% (6) 9.1% (5) 16.4% (9)
Liang [22] 3 months after discharge 76 42.1% (32) NA 6.6% (5) 19.7% (15)
van den Borst [24] 13.0 ± 2.2 weeks after symptom onset
9.1 ± 1.6 weeks after discharge
84 NA 9.5% (8) 15.5% (13) 48.8% (41)
Smet [25] 74 ± 12 days after diagnosis 220 54.1% (119) 38.2% (84) NA 21.8% (48)
Shah [26] 12 weeks after symptom onset 60 58.3% (35) 23.3% (14) 11.7% (7) 51.7% (31)
Lerum [27] 83 [73, 90] days after hospital admission 1032 NA 6.8% (7) NA 23.3% (24)
Bellan [28] 4 months after after discharge 224 NA NA NA 50.4% (113)
Huang [29] 186 [175, 199] days after symptom onset 349 NA 16.0% (56) 6.3% (22) 32.7% (114)
  1. Value is shown as mean ± SD or median [Q1, Q3]. Abbreviations: PFT pulmonary function test, LLN lower limit of normal, VC vital capacity, FVC forced vital capacity, TLC total lung capacity, FEV1 forced expiratory volume in 1 s, DLCO diffusion capacity of the lungs for carbon, NA non-applicable. Studies are in order of publication date