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Table 1 Participant characteristics

From: Disparities in access to food and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)-related outcomes: a cross-sectional analysis

  Food deserta (N = 604) Non-food deserta (N = 2109) p Value
FEV1% pred., mean ± SD 71.7 ± 27.2 73.4 ± 26.3 0.159
COPD (Strata 3 & 4)b, % 64.2 66.9 0.230
Age, mean ± SD 60.6 ± 8.8 64.3 ± 8.8  < 0.001
Female, % 50.2 44.9 0.021
White, % 61.8 80.9  < 0.001
Some college or above, % 44.9 59.4  < 0.001
Income, %     < 0.001
 Under $15,000, % 30.8 17.2  
 $15,000–$34,999, % 24.0 17.7  
 $35,000–$49,999, % 11.5 12.7  
 $50,000–$74,999, % 11.8 15.0  
 > $75,000, % 8.0 19.5  
Decline to answer, % 13.8 18.0  
Married, % 35.6 50.0  < 0.001
Nonrural, % 98.3 86.2  < 0.001
BMI, % 28.3 ± 5.6 27.8 ± 5.2 0.064
Currently Smoking, % 54.1 36.0  < 0.001
Pack years, mean ± SD 47.6 ± 32.8 49.8 ± 25.0 0.082
Low income tract, % 100.0 23.1  < 0.001
Low food access, % 100.0 55.5  < 0.001
  1. Data are given as percentages unless otherwise indicated
  2. Bold values indicate statistical significance at the p < 0.05 level
  3. aFood desert refers to areas defined as both low food access and low income tracts. Low food access refers to a census tract with at least 500 people or 33 percent of the population living more than 1/2 mile (urban areas) or 10 miles (rural areas) from the nearest supermarket, supercenter, or large grocery store. Low income tract refers to a census tract where the tract's poverty rate is 20 percent or greater, or the tract's median family income is less than or equal to 80% of the State-wide median family income, or the tract is in a metropolitan area and has a median family income less than or equal to 80 percent of the metropolitan area's median family income
  4. bStratum 3 includes participants with > 20 pack-years and mild/moderate COPD with FEV1 /FVC < 0.7 and FEV1 > 50% predicted (GOLD stage 1 and 2) measured during enrollment. Stratum 4 includes participants with > 20 pack-years and severe COPD with FEV1 /FVC < 0.7 and FEV1 < 50% predicted (GOLD stage 3 and 4) measured during enrollment [24]