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Table 2 Differences (95% CI) in COPD-related outcomes for former and current smokers in study population residing in food desert areas versus non-food desert areas

From: Disparities in access to food and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)-related outcomes: a cross-sectional analysis

  Minimally adjusteda Adjustedb
Mean difference or odds ratio (95% CI) P value Mean difference or odds ratio (95% CI) P value
Lung function
 FEV%Pred − 0.27 (− 2.70, 2.16) 0.828 − 2.51 (− 4.97, − 0.05) 0.046
 COPD (OR)c 0.91 (0.74, 1.11) 0.333 1.20 (0.96, 1.50) 0.112
Quality of life/respiratory symptoms
 CAT 2.38 (1.58, 3.18)  < 0.001 1.20 (0.40, 2.00) 0.003
 mMRC 0.13 (0.03, 0.22) 0.012 0.06 (− 0.04, 0.16) 0.210
 SGRQ total 5.70 (3.71, 7.70)  < 0.001 3.48 (1.49, 5.47) 0.001
6-min walk distance (meters) − 16.0 (− 27.3, − 4.73) 0.005 − 12.7 (− 23.9, − 1.58) 0.025
Chest CT metric
 % emphysema (− 950) − 1.09 (− 2.07, − 0.12) 0.028 0.30 (− 0.58, 1.18) 0.508
 % air trapping (− 856) − 1.39 (− 3.46, 0.68) 0.187 2.47 (0.65, 4.29) 0.008
Exacerbations, last 12 months
 Any (OR)c 1.42 (1.14, 1.76) 0.002 1.36 (1.08, 1.72) 0.010
 Severe (OR)c 1.70 (1.27, 2.26)  < 0.001 1.56 (1.15, 2.13) 0.004
  1. Bold values indicate statistical significance at the p < 0.05 level
  2. aAdjusted by clinical centers
  3. bAdjusted for clinical centers, age, sex, race, education, income, marital status, rural status, BMI, smoking status, and pack years
  4. cCoefficient represents odds ratio