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Table 4 Differences (95% CI) in COPD-related outcomes for former and current smokers in study population residing in low food access areas versus non-low food access areas by urban status

From: Disparities in access to food and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)-related outcomes: a cross-sectional analysis

  Rural (N = 302) Urban (N = 2411)
Mean difference or odds ratio (95% CI)   P value Mean difference or odds ratio (95% CI)   P value
Lung function
 FEV%Pred 2.38 (− 3.75, 8.51) 0.445 − 5.25 (− 7.84, − 2.66)  < 0.001
 COPD (OR)a 0.77 (0.41, 1.44) 0.415 1.52 (1.20, 1.94)  < 0.001
Quality of life/respiratory symptoms
 CAT − 1.66 (− 3.60, 0.29) 0.094 1.05 (0.26, 1.84) 0.009
 mMRC − 0.24 (− 0.50, 0.02) 0.070 0.16 (0.06, 0.26) 0.002
 SGRQ total − 3.96 (− 8.69, 0.78) 0.101 4.28 (2.36, 6.20)  < 0.001
 6-min walk Distance (meters) 31.5 (5.13, 57.8) 0.019 − 8.93 (− 20.5, 2.68) 0.132
Chest CT metric
 % Emphysema (− 950) − 0.99 (− 3.19, 1.21) 0.377 1.54 (0.55, 2.52) 0.002
 % air trapping (− 856) − 1.35 (− 6.30, 3.59) 0.591 4.04 (2.11, 5.97)  < 0.001
Exacerbations, last 12 months
 Any (odds ratio)a 0.70 (0.37, 1.33) 0.275 1.35 (1.03, 1.76) 0.028
 Severe (odds ratio)a 0.80 (0.29, 2.17) 0.661 1.62 (1.12, 2.34) 0.011
  1. All modes were adjusted for clinical centers, age, sex, race, education, income, marital status, BMI, smoking status, and pack years
  2. Bold values indicate statistical significance at the p < 0.05 level
  3. aCoefficient represents odds ratio