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Table 4 Main characteristics of the thoracoscopic procedures

From: Medical thoracoscopy treatment for pleural infections: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Study Timing of thoracoscopy Entry points, n Type of thoracoscope Instrument used for fibrinous septae disruption Chest tube (size) Mean (range) tube duration (days) Post-procedural negative pressure suction application (cmH20)
Solèr et al. [10] After failed chest tube attempt Rigid Biopsy forceps 6 (2–14) Yes (− 25 to 50 cmH20)
Brutsche et al. [11] After failed chest tube attempt (˜one-third of the total sample size”) Rigid Biopsy forceps 24 or 28F Yes (− 20 cmH20)
Ravaglia et al. [12] After failed chest tube attempt in 9/41 subjects Rigid Biopsy forceps 20–32F 7.9 (2–17) Yes (− 20 cmH20)
Ohuchi et al. [13] First-line Semi-rigid Biopsy forceps 24F double lumen 9.2 (3–18) Yes (− 15 cmH20)
Xiong et al. [14] First-line 1 Rigid Biopsy forceps 11 (5–15) Yes (− 20 cmH20)
Abo-El-maged et al. [15] First-line (27 patients) and second line in patients who failed chest tube drainage (3 patients) Rigid Biopsy forceps 26–28F
Hardavella et al. [16] First-line 1 Rigid Biopsy forceps 7 (2–17)
Sumalani et al. [17] Prolonged presentation of empyema (> 30 days)
No response to antibiotics therapy
Failure of complete drainage by tube thoracostomy
1 or 2 Biopsy forceps 28–32F Yes (− 20 cmH20)
  1. F French, cmH20 centimeters of water