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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the study participants: entire cohort

From: Exploring the impact of number and type of comorbidities on the risk of severe COPD exacerbations in Korean Population: a Nationwide Cohort Study

  Severe COPD exacerbation p
All
N = 12,554 (100.0)
No
N = 10,999 (87.6)
Yes
N = 1555 (12.4)
Severe COPD exacerbations, N (range)    1.49 ± 1.09 (1–11)  
General characteristics
 Male 6880 (54.8) 5867 (53.3) 1013 (65.1) < 0.001
 Age at the beginning of the study, yrs 66.74 ± 11.26 66.13 ± 11.20 71.05 ± 10.76 < 0.001
 Health insurance type
  Medical aids 1681 (13.4) 1279 (11.6) 402 (25.9) < 0.001
  Health insurance 10,873 (86.6) 9720 (88.4) 1153 (74.2)  
 Household income
  1st quintile 1723 (13.7) 1547 (14.1) 176 (11.3) < 0.001
  2nd quintile 1483 (11.8) 1318 (12.0) 165 (10.6)  
  3rd quintile 1816 (14.5) 1633 (14.9) 183 (11.8)  
  4th quintile 2471 (19.7) 2215 (20.1) 256 (16.)  
  5th quintile 3265 (26.0) 2910 (26.5) 355 (22.8)  
  Missing 115 (0.9) 97 (0.9) 18 (1.2)  
Comorbidities
 Comorbid diseases, N (range) 2.56 ± 1.88
(0–12)
2.52 ± 1.86
(0–12)
2.88 ± 2.01
(0–10)
< 0.001
 0 1435 (11.4) 1307 (11.9) 128 (8.2) < 0.001
 1 or 2 5510 (43.9) 4866 (44.2) 644 (41.4)  
 3 or 4 3569 (28.4) 3101 (28.2) 468 (30.1)  
 ≥ 5 2040 (16.3) 1725 (15.7) 315 (20.3)  
Cardiovascular comorbidity 6927 (55.2) 6028 (54.8) 899 (57.8) 0.026
 Hypertension 5835 (46.5) 5098 (46.4) 737 (47.4) 0.439
 Ischemic heart disease 1978 (15.8) 1695 (15.4) 283 (18.2) 0.005
 Cardiac arrhythmia 888 (7.1) 749 (6.8) 139 (8.9) 0.002
 Heart failure 943 (7.5) 763 (6.9) 180 (11.6) < 0.001
 Cerebrovascular disease 1273 (10.1) 1057 (9.6) 216 (13.9) < 0.001
 Peripheral vascular disease 1006 (8.0) 889 (8.1) 117 (7.5) 0.448
Respiratory comorbidity other than COPD 6917 (55.1) 5905 (53.7) 1012 (65.1) < 0.001
 Asthma 6667 (53.1) 5686 (51.7) 981 (63.1) < 0.001
 Bronchiectasis 738 (5.9) 611 (5.6) 127 (8.2) < 0.001
Metabolic comorbidity 5840 (46.5) 5071 (46.1) 769 (49.5) 0.013
 Dyslipidaemia 3352 (26.7) 2950 (26.8) 402 (25.9) 0.419
 Diabetes mellitus 3078 (24.5) 2643 (24.0) 435 (28.0) 0.001
 Osteoporosis 1914 (15.3) 1638 (14.9) 276 (17.8) 0.003
 Chronic kidney disease 147 (1.2) 124 (1.1) 23 (1.5) 0.228
GI comorbidity 3625 (28.9) 3196 (29.1) 429 (27.6) 0.232
 Gastroesophageal reflux disease 3213 (25.6) 2827 (25.7) 386 (24.8) 0.457
 Chronic liver diseases 657 (5.2) 578 (5.3) 79 (5.1) 0.772
Malignancy comorbidity 478 (3.8) 381 (3.5) 97 (6.2) < 0.001
 Lung cancer 204 (1.6) 155 (1.4) 49 (3.2) < 0.001
 Stomach cancer 51 (0.4) 39 (0.4) 12 (0.8) 0.016
 Colorectal cancer 47 (0.4) 44 (0.4) 3 (0.2) 0.211
 Liver cancer 45 (0.4) 37 (0.3) 8 (0.5) 0.271
 Thyroid cancer 41 (0.3) 37 (0.3) 4 (0.3) 0.609
  1. Data are presented as N (%) or mean ± standard deviation, unless otherwise stated. P-values were obtained by the t-test or chi-squared test as appropriate; chronic liver diseases are liver cirrhosis or fatty liver disease. GI, gastrointestinal; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease