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Table 2 Baseline characteristics of the participants: health-screening cohort

From: Exploring the impact of number and type of comorbidities on the risk of severe COPD exacerbations in Korean Population: a Nationwide Cohort Study

  Severe COPD exacerbation p
All
N = 5306 (100.0)
No
N = 4823 (90.9)
Yes
N = 483 (9.1)
Severe COPD exacerbations, N (range)    1.31 ± 0.73 (1–6)  
General characteristics
 Male 3094 (58.3) 2725 (56.5) 369 (76.4) < 0.001
 Age at the beginning of the study, yrs 65.24 ± 10.46 64.82 ± 10.40 69.44 ± 10.13 < 0.001
 Health insurance type
  Medical aids 72 (1.4) 62 (1.3) 10 (2.1) 0.155
  Health insurance 5234 (98.6) 4761 (98.7) 473 (97.9)  
 Household income
  1st quintile 838 (15.8) 759 (15.7) 79 (16.4) 0.650
  2nd quintile 713 (13.4) 654 (13.6) 59 (12.2)  
  3rd quintile 866 (16.3) 792 (16.4) 74 (15.3)  
  4th quintile 1201 (22.6) 1095 (22.7) 106 (22.0)  
  5th quintile 1551 (29.2) 1404 (29.1) 147 (30.4)  
  Missing 65 (1.2) 57 (1.2) 8 (1.7)  
Comorbidities
 Comorbid diseases, N (range) 2.55 ± 1.82 (0–11) 2.51 ± 1.80 (0–11) 2.89 ± 1.99 (0–9) < 0.001
 0 596 (11.2) 562 (11.6) 34 (7.1) 0.004
 1 or 2 2337 (44.0) 2132 (44.2) 205 (42.4)  
 3 or 4 1535 (28.9) 1383 (28.7) 152 (31.5)  
 ≥ 5 838 (15.8) 746 (15.5) 92 (19.1)  
Cardiovascular comorbidity 2873 (54.2) 2603 (54.) 270 (55.9) 0.417
 Hypertension 2405 (45.3) 2190 (45.4) 215 (44.5) 0.707
 Ischemic heart disease 790 (14.9) 701 (14.5) 89 (18.4) 0.022
 Cardiac arrhythmia 374 (7.1) 326 (6.7) 48 (9.9) 0.009
 Heart failure 310 (5.8) 259 (5.4) 51 (10.6) < 0.001
 Cerebrovascular disease 432 (8.1) 380 (7.9) 52 (10.8) 0.027
 Peripheral vascular disease 467 (8.8) 426 (8.8) 41 (8.5) 0.799
Respiratory comorbidity other than COPD 2892 (54.5) 2580 (53.5) 312 (64.6) < 0.001
 Asthma 2788 (52.5) 2486 (51.5) 302 (62.5) < 0.001
 Bronchiectasis 307 (5.8) 269 (5.6) 38 (7.8) 0.040
Metabolic comorbidity 2502 (47.2) 2258 (46.8) 244 (50.5) 0.120
 Dyslipidaemia 1530 (28.8) 1390 (28.8) 140 (29.0) 0.939
 Diabetes mellitus 1181 (22.3) 1053 (21.8) 128 (26.5) 0.019
 Osteoporosis 800 (15.1) 728 (15.1) 72 (14.9) 0.913
 Chronic kidney disease 39 (0.7) 34 (0.7) 5 (1.0) 0.397
GI comorbidity 1804 (34.0) 1645 (34.1) 159 (32.9) 0.599
 Gastroesophageal reflux disease 1641 (30.9) 1499 (31.1) 142 (29.4) 0.446
 Chronic liver diseases 285 (5.4) 253 (5.3) 32 (6.6) 0.200
Malignancy comorbidity 168 (3.2) 129 (2.7) 39 (8.1) < 0.001
 Lung cancer 76 (1.4) 51 (1.1) 25 (5.2) < 0.001
 Stomach cancer 14 (0.3) 9 (0.2) 5 (1.0) 0.006
 Colorectal cancer 15 (0.3) 14 (0.3) 1 (0.2) > 0.999
 Liver cancer 12 (0.2) 8 (0.2) 4 (0.8) 0.019
 Thyroid cancer 24 (0.5) 22 (0.5) 2 (0.4) > 0.999
Health examination
 BMI, kg/m2 23.75 ± 3.38 23.88 ± 3.35 22.42 ± 3.44 < 0.001
 Haemoglobin, g/dL 13.65 ± 1.57 13.65 ± 1.56 13.67 ± 1.65 0.741
 Fasting blood glucose, mg/dL 102.24 ± 31.01 102.06 ± 30.04 104.08 ± 39.33 0.270
 Total cholesterol, mg/dL 197.56 ± 49.95 198.4 ± 50.7 188.6 ± 40.9 < 0.001
 Serum creatinine, mg/dL 1.01 ± 0.91 1.00 ± 0.88 1.13 ± 1.17 0.117
  1. Data are presented as n (%) or mean ± standard deviation (SD), unless stated otherwise. P-values were obtained by the t-test or chi-squared test as appropriate; chronic liver diseases are liver cirrhosis or fatty liver disease. GI, gastrointestinal; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease