Skip to main content

Table 3 Adjusted odds ratios for severe exacerbations of COPD relative to the number of comorbid diseases or comorbid groups in both cohorts

From: Exploring the impact of number and type of comorbidities on the risk of severe COPD exacerbations in Korean Population: a Nationwide Cohort Study

  Univariate analysis Multivariable analysis for no. of comorbid diseases Multivariable analysis for no. of comorbidity groups
OR 95% CI p OR 95% CI p OR 95% CI p
Entire cohort*
 No. of comorbid diseases (range, 0–12)
  0 Ref   < 0.001 Ref   0.019    
  1 or 2 1.35 (1.11 to − 1.65)   1.24 (1.01 to − 1.53)     
  3 or 4 1.54 (1.25 to − 1.89)   1.35 (1.09 to − 1.68)     
  ≥ 5 1.87 (1.50 to − 2.32)   1.40 (1.12 to − 1.77)     
 No. of comorbidity groups (range, 0–5)***
  0 Ref   < 0.001     Ref   0.001
  1 or 2 1.34 (1.10 to − 1.62)      1.22 (1.00 to − 1.49)  
  3 or 4 1.70 (1.39 to − 2.08)      1.44 (1.16 to − 1.77)  
  5 3.26 (1.77 to − 5.99)      2.20 (1.16 to − 4.18)  
Health-screening cohort**
 No. of comorbid diseases (range, 0–12)
  0 Ref   0.004 Ref   0.002    
  1 or 2 1.59 (1.09 to − 2.31)   1.63 (1.22 to − 2.17)     
  3 or 4 1.82 (1.24 to − 2.67)   1.77 (1.31 to − 2.38)     
  ≥ 5 2.04 (1.36 to − 3.07)   1.78 (1.28 to − 2.46)     
 No. of comorbidity groups (range, 0–5)***
  0 Ref   < 0.001     Ref   0.001
  1 or 2 1.63 (1.13 to − 2.36)      1.68 (1.26 to − 2.23)  
  3 or 4 1.96 (1.34 to − 2.87)      1.81 (1.35 to − 2.44)  
  5 5.59 (2.08 to − 14.98)      2.23 (1.01 to − 4.93)  
  1. CI, confidence interval; ICS, inhaled corticosteroid; LABA, long-acting beta-2 agonist; LAMA, long-acting muscarinic antagonist; Ref., reference
  2. *The final multivariate models were adjusted for sex, age, health insurance type, and COPD medication use (methylxanthines, ICS, LABA, and LAMA)
  3. **The final multivariable models were adjusted for sex, age, COPD medication use (ICS, LABA, LAMA), body mass index, total cholesterol, and smoking status
  4. ***Each comorbid disease was grouped according to the affected organ system or disease mechanism