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Table 1 Characteristics of the study participants

From: Sex differences in risk factors for depressive symptoms in patients with COPD: The 2014 and 2016 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

  With depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 ≥ 5) Without depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 < 5) Total participants P value
(N = 156) (N = 721) (N = 877)
Sex     < 0.001
Male 82 (52.6) 545 (75.6) 627 (71.5)  
Female 74 (47.4) 176 (24.4) 250 (28.5)  
Age (years, mean ± SD) 67.2 ± 9.5 65.9 ± 9.5 66.1 ± 9.5 0.125
Age (years)     0.336
40–49 9 (5.8) 54 (7.5) 63 (7.2)  
50–59 22 (14.1) 118 (16.4) 140 (16.0)  
60–69 50 (32.0) 259 (35.9) 309 (35.2)  
≥ 70 75 (48.1) 290 (40.2) 365 (41.6)  
Educational attainment     < 0.001
Elementary school or below 82 (52.6) 255 (35.4) 337 (38.4)  
Middle school 23 (14.7) 140 (19.4) 163 (18.6)  
High school 33 (21.2) 194 (26.9) 227 (25.9)  
College or above 18 (11.5) 132 (18.3) 150 (17.1)  
Equalized household income     < 0.001
Quartile 1 (low) 79 (50.6) 215 (29.8) 294 (33.5)  
Quartile 2 37 (23.7) 206 (28.6) 243 (27.7)  
Quartile 3 21 (13.5) 142 (19.7) 163 (18.6)  
Quartile 4 (high) 19 (12.2) 158 (21.9) 177 (20.2)  
Living status     < 0.001
Living together 102 (65.4) 614 (85.2) 716 (81.6)  
Living alone 54 (34.6) 107 (14.8) 161 (18.4)  
Economic activity     0.006
Employed 65 (41.7) 390 (54.1) 455 (51.9)  
Unemployed 91 (58.3) 331 (45.9) 422 (48.1)  
Residential area     0.176
Urban 69 (44.2) 274 (38.0) 343 (39.1)  
Rural 87 (55.8) 447 (62.0) 534 (60.9)  
Alcohol consumption status     0.037
Never drinker 26 (16.7) 95 (13.2) 121 (13.8)  
Former drinker 62 (39.7) 230 (31.9) 292 (33.3)  
Current drinker 68 (43.6) 396 (54.9) 464 (52.9)  
Smoking status     < 0.001
Never smoker 69 (44.3) 234 (32.5) 303 (34.6)  
Former smoker 40 (25.6) 310 (43.0) 350 (39.9)  
Current smoker 47 (30.1) 177 (24.5) 224 (25.5)  
Chronic medical diseases     0.465
None 76 (48.7) 364 (50.5) 440 (50.2)  
One 50 (32.1) 247 (34.2) 297 (33.9)  
Two or more 30 (19.2) 110 (15.3) 140 (15.9)  
BMI (kg/m2, mean ± SD) 23.3 ± 3.3 24.0 ± 2.9 23.8 ± 3.0 0.024
BMI     < 0.001
Underweight 12 (7.7) 14 (1.9) 26 (3.0)  
Normal weight 62 (39.7) 258 (35.8) 320 (36.5)  
Overweight 34 (21.8) 198 (27.5) 232 (26.4)  
Obesity 48 (30.8) 251 (34.8) 299 (34.1)  
GOLD stage     0.019
Stage 1 75 (48.1) 373 (51.7) 448 (51.1)  
Stage 2 67 (43.0) 321 (44.5) 388 (44.2)  
Stage 3 and 4 14 (8.9) 27 (3.8) 41 (4.7)  
  1. Data are presented as numbers (%) or mean ± SD
  2. A p value of < 0.05 was considered significant (bold) for all analyses
  3. PHQ-9, patient health questionnaire-9; BMI, body mass index; SD, standard deviation; GOLD, global initiative for chronic obstructive lung disease