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Table 2 Results of the relative risk regression analysis for the associated factors with depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 ≥ 5)

From: Sex differences in risk factors for depressive symptoms in patients with COPD: The 2014 and 2016 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

  RR 95% CI   P value
Sex     
Male 1.00    
Female 2.38 1.55 3.66  < 0.001
Age (years)     
40–49 1.00    
50–59 0.95 0.45 1.98 0.886
60–69 0.88 0.43 1.80 0.728
≥ 70 0.89 0.42 1.88 0.750
Educational attainment     
Elementary school or below 1.00    
Middle school 0.73 0.47 1.14 0.167
High school 0.76 0.50 1.15 0.200
College or above 0.80 0.46 1.39 0.426
Equalized household income     
Quartile 1 (low) 1.00    
Quartile 2 0.79 0.54 1.16 0.234
Quartile 3 0.67 0.42 1.08 0.104
Quartile 4 (high) 0.57 0.33 0.97 0.039
Living status     
Living together 1.00    
Living alone 1.46 1.08 1.97 0.013
Economic activity     
Employed 1.00    
Unemployed 1.06 0.78 1.45 0.695
Residential area     
Urban 1.00    
Rural 0.78 0.59 1.03 0.080
Alcohol consumption status     
Never drinker 1.00    
Former drinker 1.08 0.72 1.63 0.713
Current drinker 1.09 0.71 1.69 0.688
Smoking status     
Never smoker 1.00    
Former smoker 1.23 0.75 2.02 0.412
Current smoker 1.70 1.15 2.52 0.008
Chronic medical diseases     
None 1.00    
One 0.91 0.65 1.28 0.598
Two or more 1.01 0.68 1.51 0.947
BMI     
Underweight 1.58 1.00 2.49 0.049
Normal weight 1.00    
Overweight 0.75 0.51 1.10 0.145
Obesity 0.82 0.58 1.17 0.275
GOLD stage     
Stage 1 1.00    
Stage 2 0.99 0.74 1.34 0.957
Stage 3 and 4 1.92 1.19 3.09 0.007
  1. A p value of < 0.05 was considered significant (bold) for all analyses
  2. PHQ-9, Patient health questionnaire-9; BMI, body mass index; GOLD, global initiative for chronic obstructive lung disease; RR, relative risk; CI, confidence interval