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Table 3 Results of the relative risk regression analysis for the associated factors with depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 ≥ 5) stratified by sex

From: Sex differences in risk factors for depressive symptoms in patients with COPD: The 2014 and 2016 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

  Male Female
N = 627 N = 250
RR 95% CI P value RR 95% CI P value
Age (years)         
40–49 1.00     1.00    
50–59 1.10 0.39 3.07 0.861 0.75 0.23 2.42 0.627
60–69 1.26 0.49 3.23 0.634 0.48 0.14 1.66 0.244
≥ 70 0.98 0.36 2.61 0.960 0.76 0.20 2.81 0.677
Educational attainment         
Elementary school or below 1.00     1.00    
Middle school 0.94 0.50 1.77 0.851 0.50 0.23 1.09 0.080
High school 1.49 0.87 2.55 0.151 0.28 0.11 0.69 0.006
College or above 1.84 0.93 3.63 0.078 0.24 0.07 0.84 0.025
Equalized household income         
Quartile 1 (low) 1.00     1.00    
Quartile 2 0.50 0.29 0.89 0.017 1.39 0.79 2.44 0.254
Quartile 3 0.53 0.28 0.98 0.041 0.76 0.33 1.74 0.510
Quartile 4 (high) 0.24 0.10 0.57 0.001 1.37 0.69 2.71 0.368
Living status         
Living together 1.00     1.00    
Living alone 1.97 1.18 3.28 0.009 1.32 0.81 2.16 0.269
Economic activity         
Employed 1.00     1.00    
Unemployed 0.86 0.54 1.38 0.534 1.36 0.83 2.24 0.223
Residential area         
Urban 1.00     1.00    
Rural 0.97 0.64 1.46 0.889 0.56 0.36 0.88 0.012
Alcohol consumption status         
Never drinker 1.00     1.00    
Former drinker 1.71 0.71 4.15 0.234 1.12 0.65 1.93 0.677
Current drinker 1.59 0.67 3.80 0.295 1.06 0.51 2.20 0.874
Smoking status         
Never smoker 1.00     1.00    
Former smoker 0.91 0.44 1.88 0.805 1.78 0.54 5.91 0.342
Current smoker 1.56 0.76 3.21 0.228 1.51 0.76 2.99 0.233
Chronic medical diseases         
None 1.00     1.00    
One 1.36 0.84 2.20 0.212 0.64 0.35 1.16 0.138
Two or more 2.04 1.15 3.63 0.015 0.56 0.27 1.15 0.113
BMI         
Underweight 3.35 1.16 9.68 0.026 1.41 0.58 3.45 0.445
Normal weight 1.00     1.00    
Overweight 0.99 0.58 1.67 0.968 0.66 0.33 1.29 0.219
Obesity 0.89 0.54 1.46 0.640 0.61 0.32 1.13 0.113
GOLD stage         
Stage 1 1.00     1.00    
Stage 2 0.70 0.45 1.09 0.115 1.37 0.82 2.26 0.225
Stage 3 and 4 1.53 0.78 2.99 0.214 2.50 0.89 7.08 0.083
  1. A p value of < 0.05 was considered significant (bold) for all analyses
  2. PHQ-9, patient health questionnaire-9; BMI, body mass index; GOLD, global initiative for chronic obstructive lung disease; RR, relative risk; CI, confidence interval