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Table 2 Data on target lesions

From: Predictive risk factors for pneumothorax after transbronchial biopsy using endobronchial ultrasonography with a guide sheath

  Total No pneumothorax Pneumothorax
n = 916 n = 886 n = 30
Lesion size
 Median (IQR) mm 23.08 (17.1–32.8) 23.13 (17.1–32.8) 20.38 (17.4–33.2)
 < 20 mm (long diameter) 338 (36.9%) 325 (36.7%) 13 (43.3%)
Findings of thin-section CT
 GGN* 53 (5.8%) 47 (5.3%) 6 (20.0%)
 Solid 863 (94.2%) 839 (94.5%) 24 (80.0%)
Location
 Right upper lobe or left upper segments 448 (48.9%) 440 (49.7%) 8 (26.7%)
 Middle lobe or lingula 127 (13.9%) 119 (13.4%) 8 (26.7%)
 Lower lobe 341 (37.2%) 327 (36.9%) 14 (46.7%)
 Segments located in the sagittal direction** 214 (23.4%) 201 (22.7%) 13 (43.3%)
CT bronchus sign***
 A 518 (56.7%) 503 (56.7%) 15 (50.0%)
 B 336 (36.7%) 323 (36.5%) 13 (43.3%)
 C 62 (6.8%) 60 (6.8%) 2 (6.7%)
Pleural involvement
 Contact or indentation 344 (37.5%) 333 (37.6%) 11 (36.7%)
 No contact 572 (62.5%) 553 (62.4%) 19 (63.3%)
Fluoroscopic view
 Visible 643 (70.2%) 627 (70.8%) 16 (53.3%)
 Not visible 273 (29.8%) 259 (29.2%) 14 (46.7%)
EBUS findings
 Within 558 (60.9%) 543 (61.2%) 15 (53.3%)
 Adjacent to 236 (25.8%) 227 (25.6%) 9 (30.0%)
 Blizzard sign and mixed-blizzard sign 97 (10.5%) 92 (10.3%) 5 (16.7%)
 Outside 25 (2.7%) 24 (2.7%) 1 (3.3%)
Bronchoscopic diagnosis
 Malignancy 647 (70.6%) 633 (71.4%) 14 (46.7%)
 Infection 55 (6.0%) 50 (5.6%) 5 (16.7%)
 Organizing pneumonia 45 (4.9%) 45 (5.1%) 0 (0.0%)
 Other inflammatory lesions 61 (6.7%) 60 (6.7%) 1 (3.3%)
 Undiagnosed 108 (11.8%) 98 (12.1%) 10 (33.3%)
Final diagnosis
 Lung cancer or other malignancy 651 (71.1%) 634 (71.6%) 17 (56.7%)
 Infectious disease 56 (6.1%) 51 (5.7%) 5 (16.7%)
 Inflammatory disease 121 (13.2%) 116 (13.1%) 5 (16.7%)
 Other benign disease 88 (9.6%) 85 (9.6%) 3 (10.0%)
  1. Abbreviations: CT, computed tomography; EBUS, endobronchial ultrasonography
  2. *GGN, ground-glass-opacity-predominant nodule (consolidation-to-tumor ratio of < 0.5)
  3. ** Lung segments that present with a sagittal orientation on fluoroscopy (right: S2a, S3b, S5ab, S6a, S6c, S10a, S10c; left: S1 + 2b, S3b, S5ab, S6a, S6c, S10a, S10c)
  4. *** CT bronchus sign: type A (the responsible bronchus clearly reached the inside of the target lesion); type C (no bronchus could be detected in relation to the lesion); or type B (neither type A nor type C) [3]