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Table 2 Etiology of hypoxemic respiratory failure in cases with a PaO2/FiO2 ratio ≤ 300 mm Hg

From: Etiology-associated heterogeneity in acute respiratory distress syndrome: a retrospective cohort study

Causes of hypoxemia Etiologies of hypoxemia n (%)
ARDS (n = 258) Pulmonary ARDS, n = 137 (53.1%) Pneumonia, total 125 (48.4)
 Bacterial pneumonia 87 (33.7)
 Viral pneumonia 16 (6.2)
 Fungal pneumonia 22 (8.5)
Aspiration 8 (3.1)
Vasculitis 4 (1.6)
Extra-pulmonary ARDS, n = 59 (22.9%) Extra-pulmonary sepsis 30 (11.6)
Noncardiogenic shock 9 (3.5)
Transfusion 6 (2.3)
Drug toxicity 5 (1.9)
Pancreatitis 3 (1.2)
Burn 3 (1.2)
Trauma 3 (1.2)
Unclassified, n = 62 (24%) Uncertain 62 (24)
Non-ARDS hypoxemia with PaO2/FiO2 ratios ≤ 300 (n = 294) Hydrostatic lung edema 123 (41.8)
Pneumonia 80 (27.2)
Cancer, lung or metastatic cancer 32 (10.9)
Pleural effusion or diseases 21 (7.1)
Atelectasis 16 (5.4)
Lung fibrosis 9 (3.1)
Other 13 (4.4)
  1. ARDS acute respiratory distress syndrome