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Table 4 Comparison of gas exchange, organ dysfunction, biomarkers in coagulation and inflammation and mortality between the major etiologies of ARDS

From: Etiology-associated heterogeneity in acute respiratory distress syndrome: a retrospective cohort study

Etiologies of ARDS Pneumonia Aspiration Non-pulmonary sepsis p-valuesa
All pneumonia Bacteria Influenza Pneumocystis jiroveci
Respiratory parameters
 PaO2/FiO2 ratios 143 (99–194) 142 (94–197) 128 (73–144) 143 (116–266) 166 (120–183) 122 (87–194) 0.66
 Ventilatory ratios 1.5 (1.2–2.0) 1.6 (1.1–2.1) 1.8 (1.7–2.2) 1.4 (1.2–1.8) 1.8 (1.4–2.3) 1.7 (1.3–2.2) 0.20
 Static respiratory compliance, mL/cm H2O 32 (25–41) 30 (24–41) 34 (32–46) 33 (25–42) 30 (24–38) 29 (25–44) 0.92
Non-pulmonary organ dysfunction
 Vasopressor users, % 48 (39–57) 56 (45–67) 33 (7–70) 27 (8–55) 63 (24–91) 73 (54–88) 0.03
 Non-pulmonary  SOFA score 6 (3–8) 6 (3–9) 4 (2–7) 5 (2–8) 8 (5–11) 9 (6–12)  < 0.001
Biomarkers in inflammation and coagulation
 C-reactive protein, mg/dL 15.9 (8–23.1) 16.5 (9.7–25.7) 15.4 (6.6–22.1) 15.5 (8.5–18.8) 16 (1.9–19) 10.3 (2.8–16.5) 0.16
 D-dimer, mg/L 4.2 (2.1–7.8) 4.9 (2.4–8.9) 5.7 (3.3–9.5) 1.9 (1.7–6.2) 17.3 (1–31.3) 9.7 (3.6–14.8) 0.07
 Lactic acid, mmol/L 2.2 (1.5–3.5) 2.3 (1.5–4.2) 1.9 (1.5–2.1) 1.9 (1.1–2.4) 3.1 (2.5–13.5) 5.6 (2.6–8.4)  < 0.001
Outcome
 30-day mortality, % 43 (34–52) 43 (32–54) 22 (3–60) 53 (27–79) 63 (24–91) 67 (47–83) 0.04
  1. Data were presented as median with interquartile range or proportions with 95% confidence intervals
  2. aBetween-group comparison among pneumonia, aspiration and non-pulmonary sepsis