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Table 1 Demographic characteristics of the study population

From: Evaluation of blood and tooth element status in asthma cases: a preliminary case–control study

  Control Group Asthma Group p
n 26 17  
Child characteristics    
 Age, years* 7.8 ± 1.7 7.7 ± 1.8 0.885
 Gender, Male, %** 53.8 52.9 0.954
 Gestational length, week* 39.1 ± 2.1 38.9 ± 1.7 0.737
 Birth weight, gram* 3283 ± 687 3129 ± 383 0.406
 Breastfeeding > 12 mo, %** 80.8 87.5 0.690
 Formula milk feeding, %** 32.0 23.5 0.731
 Fe prophylaxis during infancy period, %** 57.7 47.1 0.494
 Iron deficiency anemia history, %** 15.4 35.3 0.158
 Vitamin prophylaxis during infancy period, %** 34.6 41.2 0.663
 Weight for age, z score* 0.17 ± 0.82 0.60 ± 1.33 0.275
 Height for age, z score* 0.45 ± 0.93 0.29 ± 1.23 0.628
 Body mass index z score* − 0.11 ± 0.95 0.67 ± 1.51 0.068
 History of tooth decay, %** 73.1 82.4 0.714
 Presence of tooth decay or filling in mouth, %** 46.2 41.2 0.748
 Studied tooth samples, incisors, %** 88.5 70.6 0.230
 Hemograms    
 Hemoglobin, g/dL* 12.8 ± 1.0 12.6 ± 0.8 0.661
 Mean corpuscular volume, %* 80.5 ± 5.5 79.7 ± 7.1 0.666
 Red cell distribution width, %* 13.7 ± 0.8 14.2 ± 1.2 0.150
 White blood cell*, mm3 8.3 ± 2.6 8.4 ± 1.7 0.975
 Platelets*, mm3 304.5 ± 75.6 306.6 ± 86.7 0.933
Parental characteristics    
 Maternal age at the birth of index child, years* 26.9 ± 6.6 28.3 ± 5.3 0.460
 Paternal age at the birth of index child, years* 30.9 ± 5.6 32.9 ± 4.9 0.229
 Maternal education > 8 years** 65.4 64.7 0.964
 Paternal education > 8 years** 75.0 68.8 0.728
 Maternal occupation, presence** 61.5 41.2 0.191
 Parental smoking**    0.008
 None 42.3 11.8a  
 Only one parent 42.3 29.4a  
 Both of them 15.4 58.8b  
  1. *Mean ± SD; compared with independent t-test
  2. **Data were compared with the Chi-square test and Fischer-exact test when appropriate
  3. abValues having different letter were found to be statistically different, p < 0.05