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Table 2 Concentration of elements within the tooth according to groups, in the asthma group and the control group

From: Evaluation of blood and tooth element status in asthma cases: a preliminary case–control study

  Univariate GLMa
Unit Control Asthma p Control Asthma p
n = 26 n = 17 n = 26 n = 17
Mg mg/g* 6.41 ± 1.22 5.51 ± 1.35 0.030 6.44 [5.91–6.96] 5.46 [4.79–6.14] 0.042
P mg/g* 139 ± 20 132 ± 26 0.378 139 [130–149] 131 [119–143] 0.332
Mg/P % ratio* 4.66 ± 0.94 4.30 ± 1.19 0.283 4.67 [4.24–5.10] 4.29 [3.73–4.85] 0.336
Ca mg/g* 244 ± 44 229 ± 56 0.353 249 [229–269] 222 [196–247] 0.140
Cr µg/g** 0.08 (0.04; 0.18) 0.07 (0.05; 0.17) 0.842 0.13 [0.09–0.18] 0.11 [0.07–0.17] 0.585
Mn µg/g** 1.15 (0.77; 1.72) 1.09 (0.47; 1.54) 0.441 1.29 [1.01–1.64] 1.04 [0.76–1.41] 0.305
Fe µg/g** 5.56 (3.88; 9.43) 6.53 (2.99; 8.64) 0.785 8.26 [6.16–11.07] 6.84 [4.69–10.00] 0.478
Zn µg/g* 120 ± 27 111 ± 23 0.244 120 [110–130] 111 [98–124] 0.303
Cu µg/g** 0.22 (0.12; 0.45) 0.30 (0.16; 0.76) 0.345 0.48 [0.32–0.74] 0.53 [0.31–0.92] 0.796
Zn/Cu Ratio** 553 (229; 1023) 364 (148; 714) 0.285 786 [533–1160] 413 [247–690] 0.084
Sr µg/g** 61 (50;104) 73 (50; 82) 0.901 82 [66–103] 91 [68–122] 0.613
Mo µg/g** 0.02 (0.02; 0.04) 0.02 (0.01; 0.05) 0.901 0.04 [0.02–0.05] 0.05 [0.03–0.09] 0.397
Cd ≥ DL*** 69.2% 88.2% 0.149    
Pb µg/g** 0.59 (0.50; 0.76) 0.67 (0.45; 0.91) 0.619 0.70 [0.59–0.83] 0.68 [0.55–0.85] 0.889
Hg ≥ DL*** 46.2% 29.4% 0.272    
  1. *Mean ± SD; compared with independent t-test
  2. **Median (25; 75p); compared with Mann–Whitney U test
  3. ***%; compared with the Chi-square test and Fischer-exact test when appropriate
  4. aEstimated marginal mean [95% Confidence Interval]; adjusted for child’s BAZ, history of iron deficiency anemia, and status of parental smoking