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Table 3 Concentration of elements within the blood according to groups, in the asthma group and the control group

From: Evaluation of blood and tooth element status in asthma cases: a preliminary case–control study

  Univariate GLMa
Unit Control Asthma p Control Asthma p
n = 26 n = 17 n = 26 n = 17
Mg mg/L* 39.9 ± 6.8 41.7 ± 5.7 0.385 39.8 [37.3–42.3] 41.9 [38.6–45.2] 0.365
P mg/L* 402 ± 69 408 ± 48 0.786 399 [374–425] 413 [379–446] 0.570
Mg/P %ratio** 9.3 (8.8; 11.8) 10.0 (8.7; 11.0) 0.709 10.1 [9.4–10.9] 10.3 [9.4–11.3] 0.811
Ca mg/L* 64.8 ± 7.5 65.1 ± 6.7 0.894 65.0 [62.1–68.0] 64.8 [61.0–68.6] 0.936
Cr µg/L** 0.81 (0.76; 0.94) 0.82 (0.77; 0.95) 0.535 0.85 [0.77–0.92] 0.89 [0.79–0.99] 0.575
Mn µg/L** 9.6 (8.3; 13.4) 9.0 (7.6; 11.2) 0.214 10.7 [9.5–11.9] 9.5 [8.2–11.0] 0.272
Fe mg/L* 467 ± 66 467 ± 44 0.968 466 [444–488] 468 [439–497] 0.932
Zn mg/L* 5.86 ± 1.16 5.04 ± 1.06 0.026 5.89 [5.43–6.36] 4.99 [4.38–5.59] 0.034
Cu mg/L* 1.05 ± 0.17 1.13 ± 0.19 0.182 1.05 [0.98–1.13] 1.12 [1.02–1.21] 0.349
Zn/Cu Ratio* 5.64 ± 1.03 4.54 ± 0.92 0.001 5.66 [5.25–6.07] 4.50 [3.97–5.03] 0.002
Sr µg/L* 18.6 ± 5.8 17.9 ± 7.4 0.757 17.2 [14.8–19.7] 19.9 [16.7–23.1] 0.237
Mo µg/L* 0.93 ± 0.38 0.86 ± 0.33 0.514 0.96 [0.82–1.10] 0.81 [0.63–1.00] 0.264
Cd µg/L** 0.16 (0.09; 0.23) 0.15 (0.12; 0.22) 0.842 0.18 [0.14–0.21] 0.15 [0.12–0.20] 0.425
Pb µg/L** 9.5 (7.3; 12.5) 9.9 (8.5; 12.0) 0.502 11.2 [9.5–13.1] 9.9 [8.0–12.1] 0.386
Hg µg/L** 0.18 (0.10; 0.36) 0.20 (0.15; 0.28) 0.365 0.29 [0.20–0.41] 0.24 [0.15–0.38] 0.559
  1. *Mean ± SD; compared with independent t-test
  2. **Median (25; 75p); compared with Mann–Whitney U test
  3. aEstimated marginal mean [95% Confidence Interval]; adjusted for child’s BAZ, history of iron deficiency anemia, and status of parental smoking