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Table 3 Characteristics of patients stratified by p/F during hospitalization

From: Residual respiratory impairment after COVID-19 pneumonia

  N available observations p/F ≥ 300 (N = 28) p/F < 300 ≥ 200 (n = 27) p/F < 200 (n = 21) p value
Age (years) 76 52.3 (14.0) 59.2 (12.2) 63.1 (11.9) 0.014
Sex 76     0.618
 Male   19 (68) 17 (63) 16 (76)  
 Female   9 (32) 10 (37) 5 (24)  
BMI (Kg/m2) 75 25.7 (5.1) 27.3 (3.9) 28.0 (4.3) 0.181
p/F worst 76 349.0 (55.8)* 276.0 (54.0)* 135.0 (92.5)*  < 0.001
Hospitalization time (days) 76 9.5 (6.0)* 13.0 (9.0)* 23.0 (14.0)*  < 0.001
ICU admission 76 0 (0) 1 (4) 13 (62)  < 0.001
Smoking history 75     0.595
 Never smoker   10 (36) 9 (33) 10 (50)  
 Smoker   1 (3) 2 (8) 0 (0)  
 Former smoker   17 (61) 16 (59) 10 (50)  
Pulmonary disease history      
 COPD 76 0 (0) 2 (7) 0 (0) 0.155
 Asthma 76 6 (21) 1 (4) 0 (0) 0.017
Chest CT performed 76 15 (54) 17 (63) 13 (62) 0.745
Radiology (chest XR or CT) 76     0.001
 Unilateral involvement   11 (39) 3 (11) 0 (0)  
 Bilateral involvement   17 (61) 24 (89) 21 (100)  
Antiviral therapy      
 Lopinavir/Ritonavir 75 12 (43) 9 (35) 13 (62) 0.165
 Darunavir/Ritonavir 76 14 (50) 19 (70) 13 (62) 0.300
Anti IL-6 76 2 (7) 10 (37) 17 (81)  < 0.001
Enoxaparin 76 8 (29) 11 (41) 20 (95)  < 0.001
Azithromycin 75 12 (43) 13 (50) 12 (57) 0.611
Hydroxychloroquine 76 27 (96) 25 (93) 21 (100) 0.422
Corticosteroids 74 0 (0) 3 (11) 2 (11) 0.195
Respiratory support      
 Ventimask 76 8 (28) 25 (93) 21 (100)  < 0.001
 HFNC 75 0 (0) 1 (4) 8 (38)  < 0.001
 NIV or CPAP 75 0 (0) 0 (0) 11 (52)  < 0.001
 Orotracheal Intubation 68 0 (0) 0 (0) 5 (25) 0.002
FVC§ 73     
 Litres   4.23 (0.18) 3.77 (0.18) 3.68 (0.21) 0.099
 % predicted   119.6 (3.3) 104.5 (3.4) 92.0 (3.9)° 0.005
FEV1§ 73     
 Litres   3.36 (0.14) 3.00 (0.14) 2.98 (0.16) 0.110
 % predicted   107.8 (3.0) 103.0 (3.1) 92.6 (3.6)° 0.009
FEV1/FVC§ 73     
 %   80.0 (1.0) 79.3 (1.0) 81.1 (1.2) 0.536
TLC§ 72     
 Litres   5.95 (0.23) 5.53 (0.24) 5.31 (0.26) 0.191
 % predicted   92.6 (2.7) 90.7 (2.8) 80.4 (3.1)° # 0.012
DLCO§ 73     
 Litres   23.23 (0.97) 21.05 (1.00) 18.69 (1.15)° 0.017
 % predicted   82.7 (2.7) 80.6 (2.8) 64.9 (3.2)° #  < 0.001
RV§ 72     
 Litres   1.58 (0.48)* 1.58 (0.44)* 1.48 (0.71)* 0.362
 % predicted   77.6 (3.6) 73.8 (3.8) 70.8 (4.2) 0.498
ABG§ 74     
 pO2 (mmHg)   93.3 (1.6) 92.7 (1.5) 87.8 (1.8) 0.053
 pCO2 (mmHg)   39.2 (0.6) 38.3 (0.6) 38.9 (0.7) 0.467
 pH   7.41 (0.03)* 7.41 (0.04)* 7.42 (0.03)* 0.995
 d(A-a) (mmHg)   10.1 (1.4) 12.3 (1.3) 16.6 (1.6)° 0.011
6MWT§ 72     
 SpO2 basal   98.0 (1.0)* 97.0 (2.0)* 97.0 (2.0)* 0.121
 SpO2 nadir   96.5 (3.0)* 95.0 (3.0)* 94.0 (4.0)*° 0.005
 Meters   560 (130)* 500 (95)*° 480 (140)*° 0.004
Dyspnoea VAS (mm)§      
 Before 75 3.5 (2.1) 6.1 (2.1) 1.5 (2.5) 0.359
 During 75 44.1 (5.4) 45.1 (5.5) 60.0 (6.4) 0.128
 Follow-up 75 14.1 (3.5) 22.5 (3.6) 25.9 (4.1) 0.077
Cough VAS (mm)§      
 Before 75 0.4 (1.3) 4.8 (1.4) 1.1 (1.6) 0.055
 During 75 37.0 (5.8) 35.1 (5.9) 31.5 (6.9) 0.830
 Follow-up 75 2.9 (2.3) 8.8 (2.3) 7.7 (2.7) 0.171
  1. Data are presented as counts (%) or means (SD) or medians with interquartile range (IQR) for non-normally distributed variables (indicated with *). BMI: Body Mass Index; ICU: Intensive Care Unit; COPD: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease; IL-6: Interleukin; HFNC: High Flow Nasal Cannula; NIV: Non-Invasive Ventilation; CPAP: Continue Positive Airway Pressure; VAS: Visual Analogic Scale. §Pulmonary Function, ABG, 6MWT parameters, Dyspnoea Visual Anlogic Scale (VAS) and Cough VAS are reported as estimated means (Standard Error) after adjustment for age used as covariate in the ANOVA model. °p value < 0.05 versus p/F ≥ 300 group. # p value < 0.05 versus p/F < 300 ≥ 200 group