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Table 1 Baseline demographics and clinical characteristics of the UMEC/VI and TIO cohorts

From: Time-to-first exacerbation, adherence, and medical costs among US patients receiving umeclidinium/vilanterol or tiotropium as initial maintenance therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a retrospective cohort study

  Unmatched cohorts Propensity score-matched cohorts
UMEC/VI (N = 4932) TIO (N = 12 997) Std diffa (%) UMEC/VI (N = 3929) TIO (N = 3929) Std diffa (%)
Post-index eligibility period, days, mean (SD) [median] 692.1 (259.9) [629] 999.8 (419.0) [957] 88.3 729.7 (270.6) [670] 739.3 (278.2) [677] 3.5
On-treatment follow-up period, days, mean (SD) [median] 199.4 (239.1) [90] 150.1 (234.3) [60] 20.9 203.0 (249.0) [90] 139.4 (197.9) [60] 28.3
Variables included in propensity score
Demographicsb
Age, years, mean (SD) [median]
Female, n (%)
70.5 (9.7) [71]
2253 (45.7)
71.9 (9.4) [72]
6432 (49.5)
14.5
7.6
70.9 (9.7) [71]
1844 (46.9)
70.8 (9.5) [71]
1847 (47.0)
0.4
0.2
Year of index date, n (%)
2014
2015
2016
2017
77 (1.6)
639 (13.0)
1349 (27.4)
2867 (58.1)
4568 (35.1)
3485 (26.8)
2476 (19.1)
2468 (19.0)
86.8
34.7
19.7
80.4
77 (2.0)
639 (16.3)
1222 (31.1)
1991 (50.7)
81 (2.1)
642 (16.3)
1269 (32.3)
1937 (49.3)
0.7
0.2
2.6
2.7
Region,b n (%)
South
West
Midwest
Northeast
Unknown
2503 (50.8)
945 (19.2)
1007 (20.4)
466 (9.4)
11 (0.2)
4508 (34.7)
4127 (31.8)
2863 (22.0)
1456 (11.2)
43 (0.3)
32.5
28.9
3.9
5.8
2.1
1786 (45.5)
870 (22.1)
876 (22.3)
390 (9.9)
7 (0.2)
1746 (44.4)
892 (22.7)
892 (22.7)
386 (9.8)
13 (0.3)
2.0
1.3
1.0
0.3
3.0
Insurance plan type,b n (%)
Medicare
Commercial
3905 (79.2)
1027 (20.8)
10 983 (84.5)
2014 (15.5)
13.8
13.8
3183 (81.0)
746 (19.0)
3183 (81.0)
746 (19.0)
0.0
0.0
Quan-CCI,c mean (SD) [median] 3.0 (2.2) [3] 3.1 (2.3) [3] 1.8 3.1 (2.3) [2] 3.0 (2.3) [2] 1.8
COPD-related exacerbationsc
Number of exacerbations, mean (SD) [median]
 Overall
 Moderate
 Severe
0.46 (0.78) [0]
0.33 (0.68) [0]
0.13 (0.38 [0]
0.43 (0.77) [0]
0.24 (0.58) [0]
0.20 (0.47) [0]
3.8
15.6
16.2
0.46 (0.78) [0]
0.30 (0.65) [0]
0.15 (0.41) [0]
0.44 (0.78) [0]
0.30 (0.66) [0]
0.14 (0.38) [0]
1.4
0.7
1.6
Patients with exacerbations, n (%)
 Overall
 Moderate
 Severe
1640 (33.3)
1077 (21.8)
563 (11.4)
4151 (31.9)
1915 (14.7)
2236 (17.2)
2.8
18.4
16.5
1282 (32.6)
754 (19.2)
528 (13.4)
1282 (32.6)
754 (19.2)
528 (13.4)
0.0
0.0
0.0
Respiratory medications,c n (%)
Systemic corticosteroids
SABA
SAMA/SABA
Montelukast
SAMA
Methylxanthines
Chronic antibiotic (≥ 6 months of continuous use)
N-acetylcysteine
PDE-4 inhibitor
2325 (47.1)
2026 (41.1)
480 (9.7)
235 (4.8)
79 (1.6)
28 (0.6)
11 (0.2)
5 (0.1)
3 (0.1)
5036 (38.7)
4244 (32.7)
1086 (8.4)
377 (2.9)
245 (1.9)
51 (0.4)
26 (0.2)
11 (0.1)
18 (0.1)
17.0
17.5
4.8
9.7
2.2
2.5
0.5
0.5
2.5
1754 (44.6)
1508 (38.4)
371 (9.4)
181 (4.6)
68 (1.7)
19 (0.5)
8 (0.2)
5 (0.1)
1 (0.0)
1770 (45.0)
1536 (39.1)
365 (9.3)
152 (3.9)
70 (1.8)
16 (0.4)
10 (0.3)
3 (0.1)
4 (0.1)
0.8
1.5
0.5
3.7
0.4
1.1
1.1
1.6
3.0
COPD-related HCRU,c mean (SD) [median]
 Hospitalizations
 ER visits
 Outpatient visits
 Other visits
0.21 (0.54) [0]
0.24 (0.85) [0]
3.0 (5.8) [2]
1.5 (4.1) [0]
0.34 (0.72) [0]
0.27 (0.96) [0]
2.3 (6.1) [1]
1.9 (5.0) [0]
21.1
3.6
10.7
9.4
0.25 (0.59) [0]
0.25 (0.91) [0]
2.9 (5.6) [1]
1.5 (4.2) [0]
0.24 (0.52) [0]
0.26 (0.82) [0]
2.7 (6.9) [1]
1.6 (4.4) [0]
2.4
0.5
2.8
2.2
COPD-related medical costs,c $US 2019, mean (SD)
 Total medical costs
 Hospitalizations
 ER visits
 Outpatient visits
 Other visits
8167 (23 213)
4650 (19 645)
1113 (5307)
2130 (7809)
274 (1337)
11 458 (29 315)
7839 (24 071)
1546 (9618)
1720 (9639)
353 (1461)
12.4
14.5
5.6
4.7
5.6
9042 (25 234)
5552 (21 675)
1201 (5737)
2006 (7594)
284 (1412)
8642 (20 558)
5230 (16 708)
1187 (6207)
1910 (8931)
315 (1838)
1.7
1.7
0.2
1.2
1.9
Elixhauser comorbidities n (%)
 Chronic pulmonary disease
 Hypertension
4522 (91.7)
3733 (75.7)
11 417 (87.8)
9664 (74.4)
12.7
3.1
3539 (90.1)
2974 (75.7)
3548 (90.3)
2974 (75.2)
0.8
1.1
  1. aFor continuous variables, the standardized difference was calculated by dividing the absolute difference in means of the control and the case by the pooled standard deviation of both cohorts. The pooled standard deviation is the square root of the average of the squared standard deviations; for dichotomous variables, the standardized difference is calculated using the following equation where P is the respective proportion of patients in each cohort: |(Pcase-Pcontrol)| / √[(Pcase(1-Pcase) + Pcontrol(1-Pcontrol))/2]; bEvaluated at the index date; cEvaluated during the 12-month pre-index period
  2. CCI, Charlson Comorbidity Index; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; ER, emergency room; HCRU, healthcare resource utilization; PDE-4, phosphodiesterase type 4 inhibitor; SABA, short-acting β2-agonist; SAMA, short-acting muscarinic antagonist; SD, standard deviation; Std diff, standardized difference; TIO, tiotropium; UMEC, umeclidinium; VI, vilanterol