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Table 1 Comparison of groups with and without pneumothorax evaluated by univariate analysis

From: The role of clinical characteristics and pulmonary function testing in predicting risk of pneumothorax by CT-guided percutaneous core needle biopsy of the lung

Clinical characteristics All patients studied Pneumothorax
*N (%) or Median (lower–upper quartile) Rangeδ *Yes *No X2/Z P Value
No. of cases analyzed 343   50 (14.6%) 293 (85.4%)   
Demographic characteristic       
 Age (years) 62 (53–68) 18–82 61 (55–65) 62 (53–68) − 0.558 0.577
 Gender      1.539 0.215
  Male 206 (60.1%)   34 (9.9%) 172 (50.1%)   
  Female 137 (39.9%)   16 (4.7%) 121 (35.3%)   
 Pack-years smoking 0 (0–30) 0–200 6 (0–30) 0 (0–30) − 0.752 0.452
Lesion characteristics       
 Location of lesion      8.071 0.004
  Upper 200 (58.3%)   20 (5.8%) 180 (52.5%)   
  Lower 143 (41.7%)   30 (8.8%) 113 (32.9%)   
 Lesion size (mm)      2.442 0.118
  < 20 108 (31.49%)   11 (3.2%) 97 (28.3%)   
  ≥ 20 235 (68.51%)   39 (11.4%) 196 (57.1%)   
 Adjacent pleura or chest wall invasion      0.057 0.812
  Yes 211 (61.5%)   30 (8.8%) 181 (52.8%)   
  No 132 (38.5%)   20 (5.8%) 112 (32.6%)   
 Presence of emphysema      29.744 4.929 × 10–8
  Yes 39 (11.4%)   17 (5.0%) 22 (6.4%)   
  No 304 (88.6%)   33 (9.6%) 271 (79.0%)   
Technique characteristics       
 Patient position      1.619 0.445
  Supine 104 (30.3%)   13 (3.8%) 91 (26.5%)   
  Prone 192 (56.0%)   32 (9.3%) 160 (46.7%)   
  Lateral decubitus 47 (13.7%)   5 (1.5%) 42 (12.2%)   
 Needle puncture site      1.559 0.816
  Anterior 42 (12.2%)   7 (2.0%) 35 (10.2%)   
  Anterolateral 54 (15.8%)   6 (1.7%) 48 (14.0%)   
  Lateral 37 (10.8%)   5 (1.5%) 32 (9.3%)   
  Posterior 165 (48.1%)   27 (7.9%) 138 (40.2%)   
  Posterolateral 45 (13.1%)   5 (1.5%) 40 (11.7%)   
 Length of intrapulmonary needle tract (mm) 11.6 (0.0–19.9) 0–70.3 11.0 (0.0–21.8) 11.6 (0.0–19.9) − 0.405 0.685
 Dwell time (s) 200 (169–283) 70–1200 240 (174–360) 200 (168–271) − 1.992 0.046
 Needle-pleural angle (°) 65 (48–80) 0–90 69 (52–85) 63 (48–80) − 1.078 0.281
 Needle redirections      1.118 0.290
  Yes 31 (9.0%)   7 (2.0%) 24 (7.0%)   
  No 312 (91.0%)   43 (12.5%) 269 (78.4%)   
 No. of pleural punctures 1 (1–1) 1–2 1 (1–1) 1 (1–1) − 0.492 0.622
 No. of cores 2 (1–2) 1–6 2 (2–3) 2 (1–2) − 1.014 0.311
Diagnostic characteristics      1.476 0.671
 Malignant 248 (72.3%)   40 (11.7%) 208 (60.6%)   
 Benign 80 (23.3%)   9 (2.6%) 71 (20.7%)   
 Borderline 2 (0.6%)   0 2 (0.6%)   
 Non-diagnostic/inadequate 13 (3.8%)   1 (0.3%) 12 (3.5%)   
  1. Significant difference (P<0.05) are shown in bold
  2. *Data are shown as number N (%) for categorical variables or median (lower quartile to upper quartile) for quantitative variables with non-normal distribution
  3. δRange only for quantitative variables
  4. Chi-square test for categorical variables. Mann–Whitney U test for quantitative variables. All quantitative data showed non-normal distribution by Shapiro–Wilk test