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Table 3 Primary analysis and sensitivity analysis of misuse

From: Effectiveness of one-on-one coaching in improving pressurized metered dose inhaler (pMDI) technique among COPD patients: a prospective clinical study

  Pre-teaching Post-teaching Pre-to-post change (95%CI) p value Number needed to treat
Misuse (primary analysis) 27 (43.5%) 8 (12.9%) − 30.6% (− 17.6% to − 43.7%)  < 0.001 3.3
Misuse (sensitivity analysis) 46 (45.5%) 27 (26.7%) − 18.8% (− 10.2% to − 27.4%)  < 0.001 5.3
Errors 3.1 ± 1.5 1.7 ± 1.4 − 1.4 (− 1.8 to − 1)  < 0.001  
  1. Misuse is reported as number (%). Errors is reported as mean ± SD