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Table 1 Cohort 1. University of Ferrara-COPD and controls

From: Paradoxical effects of cigarette smoke and COPD on SARS-CoV-2 infection and disease

  N NS Smokers COPD P
Total participants (N) 33 7 16 10  
Age 33 71 ± 5 71 ± 9 73 ± 4 NS
Gender (M/F) 33 5/2 9/7 8/2 NS
Smoking history (pack years) 33 0 29 ± 11* 34 ± 11* P < 0.001
Smoking habit (current/former smoker) 33 0 5/11 2/8 NS
Spirometry 33 7 16 10  
FEV1 (% predicted) 33 99 ± 10 104 ± 18 66 ± 10*^ P < 0.001
FEV1/FVC 33 0.78 ± 0.07 0.81 ± 0.10 0.61 ± 0.08*^ P < 0.001
Comorbidities 33 7 16 10  
Hypertension N (%) 33 3 (43%) 9 (56%) 6 (60%) NS
Other cardiovascular diseases N (%) 33 1 (14%) 2 (13%) 2 (20%) NS
Diabetes mellitus N (%) 33 0 1 (6%) 1 (10%) NS
Medications 33 7 16 10  
Inhaled corticosteroids N (%) 33 0 0 2 (20%) NS
LABA/SABA/LAMA N (%) 33 0 0 10 (100%)*§ P < 0.001
Oral corticosteroids N (%) 33 0 0 0 NS
ACEi/ARB N (%) 33 2 (29%) 4 (25%) 3 (30%) NS
Ca Antagonists/B-blockers N (%) 33 4 (57%) 9 (56%) 5 (50%) NS
  1. Data are mean ± SD, unless specified
  2. NS never-smokers
  3. *P < 0.001 compared to NS; ^P < 0.001 compared to Smokers; §P < 0.05 compared to NS