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Table 2 Cohort 2: University of Arizona and Arizona Donor Network: COPD patients and controls

From: Paradoxical effects of cigarette smoke and COPD on SARS-CoV-2 infection and disease

  N NS Smokers COPD P
Total participants (N) 47 10 16 21  
Age 47 56 ± 18*a 67 ± 6 66 ± 9 P < 0.01a
Gender (M/F) 47 7/3 7/9 12/9 NS
Smoking history (pack years) 47 0 33 ± 15*** 38 ± 21*** P < 0.001
Smoking habit (current/former smoker) 47 0 6/10 5/16 NS
Spirometry 43 7 16 20  
FEV1 (% predicted) 43 77 ± 16 88 ± 21 40 ± 24***^ P < 0.001
FEV1/FVC 43 82 ± 7 80 ± 9 41 ± 18***^ P < 0.001
Comorbidities 47 10 16 21  
Hypertension N (%) 47 5 (50%) 9 (56%) 11 (52%) NS
Other cardiovascluar diseases N (%) 47 1 (10%) 5 (31%) 5 (24%) NS
Diabetes mellitus N (%) 47 2 (20%) 2 (13%) 4 (19%) NS
Medications 45 8 16 21  
Inhaled corticosteroids N (%) 45 0 4 (25%) 10 (48%)§ P < 0.05
LABA/SABA/LAMA N (%) 45 0 6 (38%) § 17 (81%)***# P < 0.01
Oral corticosteroids N (%) 45 1 (13%) 0 3 (14%) NS
ACEi/ARB N (%) 45 3 (38%) 4 (44%) 9 (43%) NS
Ca Antagonists/B-blockers N (%) 45 2 (25%) 6 (38%) 6 (29%) NS
Diuretics N (%) 45 2 (25%) 5 (31%) 2 (10%) NS
  1. Data are mean ± SD, unless specified
  2. NS never-smokers
  3. *P < 0.01 versus Smokers and COPD patients; §P < 0.05 compared to NS; °P < 0.001 compared to smokers and NS; ***P < 0.001 compared to NS; #P < 0.01 compared to NS. ^P < 0.001 compared to smokers
  4. aDue to the significant difference in age between NS versus COPD and Smokers, ACE2 levels were corrected for age using linear regression models