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Table 3 Outcome measurements

From: Opioids in patients with COPD and refractory dyspnea: literature review and design of a multicenter double blind study of low dosed morphine and fentanyl (MoreFoRCOPD)

  Measurement Frequency of measurement
Primary outcome measure   
Change in mean dyspnea sensation Numeric rating scale [26] Once daily in patient diary
Secondary outcome measures   
Change in worst dyspnea sensation Numeric rating scale [26] Once daily in patient diary
Change in Health-Related Quality of Life CCQ [27] Once daily in patient diary
CRQ [28] During each study visit
CRQ-mastery domain During each study visit
HADS-A [29]
Open en named side effects
During each study visit
Once daily in patient diary and asked during study visits
Anxiety
Side effects
Change in hypercapnia, HCO3 and pH
Change in sleep quality
Patient preference
Continued opioid use
Capillary blood gas analysis
Numeric rating scale [30]
Asked during the final study visit
Asked 3 months after the end of study
During each study visit
Once daily in patient diary
Once
Once
  1. CCQ clinical COPD questionnaire, CRQ chronic respiratory questionnaire, HADS-A hospital anxiety and depression scale—anxiety subscale