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Table 7 PM levels on the day before hospitalization associated with CRP, incidence of comorbidities, BMI, smoking status, and administration of drugs stratified by odds ratio and 95% confidence interval

From: Effect of urban air pollution on CRP and coagulation: a study on inpatients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Variables CRR Crude Adjusted p value
< 10 mg/L ≥ 10 mg/L OR 95%CI OR 95%CI
n = 191 n = 126
Age years
 < 65 65 (20.50%) 36 (11.36%) 1.29 (0.791,2.103)
 ≥ 65 126 (39.75%) 90 (28.39%)      
Sex
 Female 38 (11.99%) 26 (8.20%) 1.05 (0.599,1.831)
 Male 153 (48.26%) 100 (31.55%)      
BMI
 < 18.5 kg/m2 19 (5.99%) 12 (3.79%) 0.95 (0.445,2.039)
 ≥ 18.5 kg/m2 172 (54.26%) 114 (35.96%)      
GOLD classes
 Moderate 20 (6.31%) 11 (3.47) 0.82 (0.378,1.771) 1.5 (1.002,2.236) 0.049
 Severe 126 (39.75) 70 (22.08%) 0.65 (0.406,1.023)    
 Very severe 45 (14.20%) 45 (14.20%) 1.80 (1.099,2.955)    
Current smoker
 Yes 18 (5.68%) 24 (7.57) 2.26 (1.171,4.368) 2.1 (1.109,4.361) 0.024
 No 173 (54.57%) 102 (32.18%)      
Passive smoking
 Yes 65 (20.50%) 42 (13.25%) 0.97 (0.602,1.560)
 No 126 (39.75%) 84 (26.50%)      
Use of statins
 Yes 38 (11.99%) 20 (6.31%) 0.76 (0.419,1.378)
 No 153 (48.26%) 106 (33.44%)      
Inhaled corticosteroids
 Yes 163 (51.42%) 110 (34.70%) 0.77 (0.401,1.447)
 No 28 (8.83%) 16 (5.05%)      
Comorbidities
 Hypertension 60 (18.93%) 56 (17.67%) 1.75 (1.096,2.783) 1.65 (1.019,2.683) 0.042
 Coronary heart disease 39 (12.30%) 40 (12.62%) 1.81 (1.084,3.032) 1.63 (0.952,2.774) 0.075
 Diabetes 27 (8.52%) 19 (5.99%) 1.08 (0.571,2.036)
 Asthma 12 (3.79%) 15 (4.73%) 2.02 (0.910,4.465)
 Bronchiectasis 3 (0.95%) 4 (1.26%) 2.06 (0.452,9.340)
PM2.5
 ≥ 25 ug/m3 126 (39.75%) 102 (32.18%) 2.19 (1.283,3.747) 1.91 (1.101,3.315) 0.021
 < 25 ug/m3 65 (20.50%) 24 (7.57%)      
PM10
 ≥ 50 ug/m3 94 (29.65%) 81 (25.56%) 1.86 (1.170,2.948)
 < 50 ug/m3 97 (30.60%) 45 (14.20%)      
  1. CRP, C-reactive protein; PM2.5, Particulate matter smaller than 2.5 µm in diameter; PM10, Particulate matter smaller than 10 µm in diameter; GOLD, Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease; BMI, Body Mass Index
  2. Variables found to be statistically significant in the multivariable unconditional logistic regression model. Adjusted for GOLD classes, current smoker, hypertension, coronary heart disease, PM2.5 and PM10