Skip to main content

Table 1 Baseline characteristics of patients

From: The cumulative dose-dependent effects of metformin on the development of tuberculosis in patients newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus

  Metformin user
(n = 13,396)
Metformin non-user
(n = 52,736)
p Value STD
Number % Number %
Sex
 Male 7681 57.34% 25,809 48.94%  < 0.001 16.89%
 Female 5715 42.66% 26,927 51.06%    − 16.89%
Age1)
 20–29 216 1.61% 1375 2.61%  < 0.001  − 6.93%
 30–39 1133 8.46% 4204 7.97%   1.77%
 40–49 3064 22.87% 9797 18.58%   10.61%
 50–59 3896 29.08% 13,410 25.43%   8.21%
 60–69 3089 23.06% 13,024 24.70%    − 3.84%
 70–79 1601 11.95% 8254 15.65%    − 10.74%
 ≥ 80 397 2.96% 2672 5.07%    − 10.73%
Anti-diabetic treatment2)
 Insulin therapy 1585 11.83% 2228 4.22%  < 0.001 28.27%
 Sulfonylurea 8253 61.61% 8260 15.66%  < 0.001 107.02%
 Other drugs(excluding Metformin) 4630 34.56% 2685 5.09%  < 0.001 79.55%
Anti-diabetic treatment3)
 Insulin therapy 1439 10.74% 3828 7.26%  < 0.01 12.19%
 Sulfonylurea 7811 58.31% 8071 15.30%  < 0.01 99.62%
 Other drugs(exclusingMetformin) 2651 19.79% 2013 3.82%  < 0.01 51.09%
Other comorbidities2)
 Malignancy 581 4.34% 4429 8.40%  < 0.001  − 16.69%
 Malabsorption 11 0.08% 118 0.22% 0.001  − 3.63%
 Chronic kidney disease 32 0.24% 871 1.65%  < 0.001  − 14.64%
 Dialysis 3 0.02% 290 0.55%  < 0.001  − 9.89%
 Gastrectomy 5 0.04% 111 0.21%  < 0.001  − 4.92%
 HIV/AIDS & organ transplantation 11 0.08% 126 0.24%  < 0.001  − 3.9%
Immunosuppresives2)
 Systemic corticosteroids 4796 35.80% 24,924 47.26%  < 0.001  − 23.42%
 Other immunosuppressants 280 2.09% 2015 3.82%  < 0.001  − 10.23%
Immunosuppresives3)
 Systemic corticosteroids 6605 49.31% 31,187 59.14%  < 0.001  − 19.83%
 Other immunosuppressants 475 3.55% 2839 5.38%  < 0.001  − 8.91%
Charlson comorbidity index2)
 Mean ± SD 2.36 1.71 2.56 1.96  < 0.001  
 Median(Q1, Q3) 2 (1, 3) 2 (1, 3)   
 0–1 4645 34.67% 17,367 32.93%  < 0.001 3.68%
 2–3 5926 44.24% 22,428 42.53%   3.45%
 ≥ 4 2825 21.09% 12,941 24.54%    − 8.23%
Healthcare utilization2)
  Hospitalization, days
 Mean ± SD 0.340 0.949 0.495 1.263   
 Median(Q1, Q3) 0 (0, 0) 0 (0, 1)   
 0 10,593 79.08% 39,000 73.95%  < 0.001 12.11%
 1 1905 14.22% 8160 15.47%    − 3.52%
 2–3 733 5.47% 4296 8.15%    − 10.63%
 ≥ 4 165 1.23% 1280 2.43%    − 8.93%
Outpatient visit, days
 Mean ± SD 17.448 20.793 22.670 24.343  < 0.001  
 Median(Q1, Q3) 11 (5, 22) 16 (8, 29)   
 < 15 8327 62.16% 25,994 49.29%  < 0.001 26.13%
 16–30 3065 22.88% 14,562 27.61%    − 10.91%
 31–50 1249 9.32% 7296 13.83%    − 14.13%
 > 50 755 5.64% 4884 9.26%    − 13.84%
Healthcare utilization3)
 Hospitalization, days
  Mean ± SD 0.714 2.243 0.954 2.766   
  Median(Q1, Q3) 0 (0, 1) 0 (0, 1)   
  0 9718 72.54% 35,745 67.78%  < 0.001 10.42%
  1 1967 14.68% 8568 16.25%    − 4.33%
  2–3 1121 8.37% 5017 9.51%    − 4.01%
  ≥ 4 590 4.40% 3406 6.46%    − 9.07%
 Outpatient visit, days
  Mean ± SD 43.556 43.298 47.169 50.329  < 0.001  
  Median(Q1, Q3) 33 (19, 54) 34 (17, 60)   
  < 15 2620 19.56% 12,103 22.95%  < 0.001  − 8.30%
  16–30 3492 26.07% 11,740 22.26%   8.90%
  31–50 3550 26.50% 11,836 22.44%   9.45%
  > 50 3734 27.87% 17,057 32.34%    − 9.76%
  1. 1)Age at cohort entry date
  2. 2)Within 1-year prior to index date
  3. 3)Within follow-up period (During 2-year from index date or until TB development)