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Table 2 Comparison of baseline characteristics in 1:1 matched cohort between metformin user and non-user

From: The cumulative dose-dependent effects of metformin on the development of tuberculosis in patients newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus

  Metformin user
(n = 12,916)
Metformin non-user
(n = 12,916)
p Value STD
Number % Number %
Sex
 Male 7377 57.12 7378 57.12 0.990  − 0.02%
 Female 5539 42.88 5538 42.88   0.02%
Age1)
 20–29 210 1.63 174 1.35  < 0.001 2.30%
 30–39 1086 8.41 913 7.07   5.01%
 40–49 2932 22.70 2694 20.86   4.47%
 50–59 3750 29.03 3611 27.96   2.38%
 60–69 2986 23.12 3156 24.43    − 3.09%
 70–79 1559 12.07 1854 14.35    − 6.75%
 ≥ 80 393 3.04 514 3.98    − 5.09%
Anti-diabetic treatment2)
 Insulin therapy 1319 10.21 1078 8.35  < 0.001 6.43%
 Sulfonylureas 7331 56.76 7650 59.23  < 0.001  − 5.01%
 Other drugs (excluding metformin) 2190 16.96 1797 13.91  < 0.001 8.43%
Other comorbidities2)
 Malignancy 565 4.37 615 4.76 0.136  − 1.85%
 Malabsorption 11 0.09 7 0.05 0.346 1.17%
 Chronic kidney disease 32 0.25 36 0.28 0.627  − 0.60%
 Dialysis 3 0.02 1 0.01 0.625 1.24%
 Gastrectomy 4 0.04 5 0.03 1.000  − 0.41%
 HIV and Organ transplantation 14 0.11 11 0.09 0.548 0.75%
Immunosuppresives2)       
 Systemic corticosteroids 4659 36.07 4690 36.31 0.688  − 0.5%
 TNF alpha + Other immunosuppressant 275 2.13 268 2.07 0.761 0.38%
Charlson comorbidity index2)
 Mean ± SD 2.34 1.70 2.24 1.75  < 0.001  
 Median (Q1,Q3) 2 (1,3) 2 (1,3)   
 0–1 4511 34.93 4903 37.96  < 0.001  − 6.31%
 2–3 5719 44.28 5489 42.50   3.59%
 ≥ 4 2686 20.80 2524 19.54   3.13%
Healthcare utilization2)
 Hospitalization, days
  Mean ± SD 0.34 0.95 0.32 0.91 0.169  
  Median (Q1,Q3) 0 (0,0) 0 (0,0)   
  0 10,237 79.26 10,327 79.96 0.458  − 1.73%
  1 1818 14.08 1780 13.78   0.85%
  2–3 701 5.43 652 5.05   1.70%
  ≥ 4 160 1.24 157 1.22   0.21%
 Outpatient visit, days
  Mean ± SD 17.59 20.93 16.98 20.17 0.018  
  Median (Q1,Q3) 11 (5,22) 11 (5,22)   
  0 7986 61.83 8164 63.21 0.147  − 2.85%
  1 2968 22.98 2858 22.13   2.04%
  2–3 1223 9.47 1191 9.22   0.85%
  ≥ 4 739 5.72 703 5.44   1.21%
  1. STD standardized difference
  2. 1)Age at cohort entry
  3. 2)Within 1-year prior to index date
  4. 3)Within follow-up period (During 2-year from index date or until TB development)