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Table 3 Association between metformin use and the risk of TB development in 1:1 matched cohort

From: The cumulative dose-dependent effects of metformin on the development of tuberculosis in patients newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus

  Tb development Univariate Adjusted*
n N % HR 95% CI p Value HR 95% CI p Value
Any Metformin (≥ 28d within 6mo)
 Non-user 40 12,916 0.31 Ref    Ref   
 User 44 12,916 0.34 1.10 0.72–1.69 0.663 1.17 0.75–1.83 0.482
Age1)
 20–29 1 384 0.26 1    1   
 30–39 6 1999 0.30 1.15 0.14–9.59 0.894 0.81 0.26–2.55 0.722
 40–49 11 5626 0.20 0.75 0.10–5.82 0.785 0.79 0.28–2.29 0.669
 50–59 23 761 0.31 1.20 0.16–8.90 0.857 1.46 0.53–4.06 0.466
 60–69 17 6142 0.28 1.06 0.14–8.00 0.952 1.77 0.64–4.92 0.271
 70–79 19 3413 0.56 2.14 0.29–16.01 0.458 2.22 0.80–6.18 0.126
 ≥ 80 8 907 0.88 3.40 0.43–27.21 0.248 2.47 0.86–7.09 0.093
Sex1)
 Male 57 14,755 0.39 1    1   
 Female 27 11,077 0.24 0.63 0.40–1.00 0.048 0.77 0.59–1.00 0.053
Comorbidities3)
 Malignancy 11 1798 0.61 2.02 1.07–3.80 0.030 1.24 0.61–2.52 0.556
 HIV/AIDS & organ transplantation 1 37 2.70 8.60 1.20–61.77 0.032 9.36 1.16–75.72 0.036
 Malabsorption 0 51 0.00 0 0 0.978 0 0 0.987
 Chronic kidney disease 2 243 0.82 2.57 0.63–10.44 0.188 1.53 0.37–6.35 0.562
 Gastrectomy 0 20 0.00 0 0 0.983 0 0 0.995
Immunosuppresives3)
 Systemic corticosteroids 42 12,929 0.32 1.0 0.65–1.53 0.990 1.31 0.81–2.10 0.272
 Other immunosuppressants 4 938 0.43 1.33 0.49–3.62 0.580 0.7 0.25–2.00 0.508
Charlson comorbidity index3)
 0–1 26 9414 0.28 1    1   
 2–3 32 11,208 0.29 1.03 0.62–1.74 0.900 1.48 1.03–2.12 0.032
 ≥ 4 26 5,210 0.50 1.81 1.05–3.12 0.033 1.60 1.07–2.39 0.023
Anti-diabetic treatment3)
 Insulin therapy 24 2,384 1.01 3.95 2.46–6.34  < 0.001 1.69 0.97–2.94 0.06
 Sulfonylurea 48 13,924 0.34 1.14 0.74–1.76 0.552 1.19 0.75–1.87 0.46
 Other drugs 25 6,224 0.40 1.34 0.84–2.13 0.225 1.27 0.77–2.08 0.34
Healthcare utilization3)
 Hospitalization, days
  0 32 18,900 0.17 1    1 1  
  1 26 3,713 0.70 4.15 2.47–6.96  < 0.001 4.59 2.63–7.99  < 0.001
  2–3 18 2,069 0.87 5.16 2.89–9.18  < 0.001 5.51 2.85–10.67  < 0.001
  ≥ 4 8 1,150 0.70 4.12 1.90–8.93  < 0.001 3.18 1.34–7.56 0.001
 Outpatient visit, days
  < 15 41 6,142 0.67 1    1 1  
  16–30 17 6,551 0.26 0.39 0.22–0.68  < 0.001 0.33 0.18–0.58  < 0.001
  31–50 10 6,290 0.16 0.24 0.12–0.47  < 0.001 0.16 0.08–0.32  < 0.001
  > 50 16 6,849 0.23 0.35 0.20–0.62  < 0.001 0.17 0.09–0.32  < 0.001
  1. *Adjusted for all variables in the table
  2. 1)Age at cohort entry date
  3. 2)Within 1-year prior to index date
  4. 3)Within follow-up period (During 2-year from index date or until TB development)