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Table 1 Characteristics of CTEPH subjects of different severity

From: Cardiopulmonary exercise testing and pulmonary function testing for predicting the severity of CTEPH

Variables Total Mild Moderate Severe P
Clinical characteristics
Age (years) 61.2 ± 11.2 65.5 ± 9.9 59.8 ± 9.3 60.4 ± 12.0 0.418
Sex, n (female/male) 31/24 4/6 7/3 20/15 0.396
Height (m) 1.6 ± 0.1 1.7 ± 0.1 1.6 ± 0.1 1.6 ± 0.1 0.527
Weight (kg) 63.3 ± 12.9 65.3 ± 12.0 56.4 ± 12.1 64.7 ± 13.1 0.178
Body mass index (kg/m2) 23.6 ± 3.2 23.6 ± 2.9 20.8 ± 3.3 24.4 ± 2.9 0.016
WHO classification II/III/IV, n 15/39/1 6/4/0 3/6/1 6/29/0 0.017
Blood test
NT-proBNP (pg/mL) 809.0 (296.9,2284.0) 143.0 (63.8,286.7) 648.5 (266.3,2049.0) 1082.0 (642.0,2674.0) 0.001
Right heart catheterization parameters
PAP (mm Hg) 48.3 ± 13.2 28.6 ± 3.3 39.5 ± 3.9 56.4 ± 8.0 < 0.001
PAWP (mm Hg) 7.0 (4.0,9.0) 8.5 (5.5,10.3) 4.0 (3.0,9.3) 7.0 (4.0,9.0) 0.250
CO (L/min) 5.0 ± 1.4 5.8 ± 1.7 4.8 ± 1.4 4.9 ± 1.3 0.221
CI (L/min/m2) 3.0 ± 0.8 3.3 ± 0.8 3.0 ± 0.7 2.9 ± 0.7 0.283
PVR (wood u) 9.0 ± 4.2 3.7 ± 1.3 7.6 ± 2.4 10.9 ± 3.8 0.011
RAP (mm Hg) 3.0 (1.0,6.0) 0.5 (0,4.5) 1.0 (0,1.3) 4.0 (2.0,7.0) 0.001
Pulmonary function testing parameters
FVC (L) 2.7 ± 0.9 2.8 ± 0.8 2.8 ± 1.1 2.6 ± 0.8 0.790
FVC (% Pred) 84.4 ± 15.8 88. 8 ± 15.6 86.3 ± 24.9 82.6 ± 12.5 0.508
FEV1 (L) 2.1 ± 0.7 2.2 ± 0.5 2.2 ± 0.8 2.0 ± 0.7 0.488
FEV1 (% Pred) 79.5 ± 17.1 85.7 ± 14.0 87.0 ± 23.9 75.6 ± 14.7 0.076
FEV1/FVC (%) 75.9 ± 8.8 78.8 ± 9.3 81.7 ± 8.0 73.4 ± 8.0 0.041
RV (L) 2.4 ± 0.7 2.5 ± 0.9 2.6 ± 0.3 2.3 ± 0.7 0.562
RV (% Pred) 126.8 ± 34.3 122.6 ± 46.1 134.9 ± 27.4 125.7 ± 32.9 0.700
TLC (L) 5.1 ± 1.3 5.3 ± 1.5 5.4 ± 1.2 5.0 ± 1.3 0.629
TLC (% Pred) 100.6 ± 19.0 101.7 ± 26.0 104.7 ± 15.4 99.1 ± 18.0 0.698
RV/TLC (%) 47.3 (41.8,53.8) 48.3 (39.0,53.8) 49.0 (39.4,61.0) 47.2 (42.0,56.1) 0.910
SB DLCO (% Pred) 81.8 ± 19.2 81.4 ± 25.2 85.0 ± 28.7 81.0 ± 14.0 0.843
Specific medications
PDE-5 inhibitors (n, %) 38 (69.1%) 9 (90.0%) 5 (50.0%) 24 (68.6%) 0.153
ERAs (n, %) 33 (60.0%) 0 7 (70.0%) 26 (74.3%) 0.000
Prostacyclin analogs (n, %) 1 (1.8%) 1 (10.0%) 0 0 0.101
sGC activators 3 (5.5%) 0 0 3 (8.6%) 0.404
Combination (n, %) 20 (36.4%) 0 2 (20.0%) 18 (51.4%) 0.006
  1. Range for “Mild”: 35 > PAP (mm Hg) ≥ 25; range for “Moderate”: 45 > PAP (mm Hg) ≥ 35; range for “Severe”: PAP (mm Hg) ≥ 45. The data are presented as mean ± SD, median (interquartile range), or n. Statistical analysis of characteristics of “Mild”, “Moderate” and “Severe” was analyzed with One-way ANOVA test, Kruskal–Wallis test or chi-square test, and was presented as “P”. WHO = World Health Organization; BNP = brain natriuretic peptide; PAP = pulmonary artery pressure; PAWP = pulmonary arterial wedge pressure; CO = cardiac output; CI = cardiac index; PVR = pulmonary vascular resistance; RAP = right atrial pressure; FVC = forced vital capacity; FEV1 = forced expiratory volume in 1 s; RV = residual volume; TLC = total lung capacity; SB DLCO = carbon monoxide diffusing capacity; PDE-5 inhibitors = phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors; ERAs = endothelial receptor antagonists; sGC activators = soluble guanylate cyclase activators