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Table 2 Comparison of the CPET parameters of CTEPH subjects of different severity

From: Cardiopulmonary exercise testing and pulmonary function testing for predicting the severity of CTEPH

Variables Rest AT Peak
Mild Moderate Severe P Mild Moderate Severe P Mild Moderate Severe P
Load (W)      40.0 (35.5,48.5) 36.0 (28.0,41.0) 32.0 (24.0,42.0) 0.177 74.3 (66.4,106.0) 65.7 (56.0,84.7) 55.0 (42.7,72.0) 0.009
HR 84.1 ± 14.3 81.3 ± 11.5 82.4 ± 12.5 0.881 109.7 ± 22.7 110.0 ± 13.0 113.7 ± 16.1 0.727 135.0 ± 19.1 132.2 ± 20.2 128.6 ± 16.4 0.565
VO2 (mL/kg/min) 4.0 ± 0.5 5.1 ± 0.9 4.4 ± 0.8 0.017 9.3 ± 2.8 9.9 ± 1.2 9.1 ± 1.6 0.518 13.6 ± 3.5 12.8 ± 1.6 10.8 ± 2.2 0.013
VO2 (% pred) 17.1 ± 2.5 20.8 ± 4.4 18.8 ± 5.3 0.229 39.1 ± 8.3 41.1 ± 9.6 38.9 ± 12.5 0.872 57.4 ± 10.8 53.1 ± 12.1 46.4 ± 15.5 0.077
VO2/HR (mL) 3.2 ± 0.8 3.5 ± 0.8 3.5 ± 0.8 0.525 5.5 ± 1.6 5.0 ± 0.9 5.2 ± 1.3 0.647 6.7 ± 2.1 5.5 ± 1.1 5.5 ± 1.4 0.083
VE (L/min) 12.3 ± 2.5 13.1 ± 2.8 14.3 ± 3.2 0.158 26.0 ± 8.0 26.2 ± 4.5 32.2 ± 6.5 0.004 46.5 ± 12.4 43.2 ± 12.0 45.2 ± 12.6 0.835
BF (/min) 20.8 (16.9,24.7) 18.1 (15.3,23.3) 20.1 (17.3,23.0) 0.350 26.0 (18.8,34.5) 20.0 (17.8,31.3) 27.0 (23.0,31.0) 0.178 32.0 (25.5,45.1) 29.3 (23.9,37.9) 31.7 (29.3,35.7) 0.580
BR (%) 85.8 (84.0,88.3) 85.1 (83.0,87.8) 80.0 (77.8,85.3) 0.029 68.7 (65.9,76.7) 70.0 (58.1,77.0) 54.1 (42.2,67.3) 0.011 47.9 (40.4,56.7) 50.6 (28.8,58.0) 35.2 (25.4,54.1) 0.348
RER 0.88 ± 0.07 0.86 ± 0.06 0.85 ± 0.07 0.449 0.95 ± 0.07 0.95 ± 0.08 0.96 ± 0.06 0.815 1.15 ± 0.10 1.10 ± 0.10 1.10 ± 0.08 0.061
VE/VCO2 55.3 ± 9.9 54.7 ± 5.0 60.53 ± 9.1 0.085 46.6 ± 10.9 51.3 ± 8.2 58.9 ± 12.3 0.013 47.0 ± 11.1 55.7 ± 13.4 62.5 ± 15.2 0.010
VE/VO2 47.8 ± 5.9 47.3 ± 5.3 51.0 ± 6.6 0.157 44.3 ± 10.2 48.9 ± 10.7 57.5 ± 15.4 0.010 53.5 ± 12.2 61.9 ± 19.0 67.6 ± 19.7 0.106
PETCO2 (mm Hg) 27.7 ± 4.7 25.8 ± 2.1 23.9 ± 3.2 0.037 29.3 ± 5.4 25.2 ± 3.8 22.8 ± 4.4 0.004 28.5 ± 5.8 23.2 ± 5.1 21.3 ± 5.2 0.007
PETO2 (mm Hg) 119.8 ± 3.2 122.3 ± 3.4 122.9 ± 3.9 0.074 119.9 ± 5.6 125.1 ± 4.7 126.9 ± 4.9 0.006 124.7 ± 4.3 130.2 ± 5.6 130.2 ± 5.7 0.020
  1. Range for “Mild”: 35 > PAP (mm Hg) ≥ 25; range for “Moderate”: 45 > PAP (mm Hg) ≥ 35; range for “Severe”: PAP (mm Hg) ≥ 45. The data are presented as mean ± SD or median (interquartile range). Statistical analysis of characteristics of “Mild”, “Moderate” and “Severe” was analyzed with One-way ANOVA test or Kruskal–Wallis test, and was presented as “P”. VO2 = oxygen uptake; HR = heart rate; VE = minute ventilation; BF = breathing frequency; BR = breathing reserve; RER = respiratory exchange ratio; VCO2 = carbon dioxide output; PETCO2 = end-tidal partial pressure for carbon dioxide; PETO2 = end-tidal partial pressure for oxygen