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Table 2 Univariable analysis of potential risk factors for severe restenosis after therapeutic bronchoscopy

From: Association of the location and initial degree of malignant central airway stenosis with the risk of severe restenosis after interventional bronchoscopy

Variables Severe restenosis P value
No (n = 141) Yes (n = 92)
Age (y), (mean ± SD) 65.9 ± 8.7 67.6 ± 7.3 0.123
Gender, n (%)    
  Male 126 (89.4) 88 (95.7) 0.086
  Female 15 (10.6) 4 (4.3)  
Diabetes, n (%)    
  Yes 7 (5.0) 4 (4.3) 0.828
  No 134 (95.0) 88 (95.7)  
Hypertension, n (%)    
  Yes 39 (27.7) 19 (20.7) 0.227
  No 102 (72.3) 73 (79.3)  
COPD, n (%)    
  Yes 13 (9.2) 8 (8.7) 0.891
  No 128 (90.8) 84 (91.3)  
Dyspnea index, n (%)    0.618
  0 26 (18.4) 16 (17.4)  
  1 5 (3.5) 4 (4.3)  
  2 16 (11.3) 11 (12.0)  
  3 22 (15.6) 8 (8.7)  
  4 72 (51.1) 53 (57.6)  
Initial degree of MCAS, (mean ± SD, %) 72.3 ± 25.0 83.9 ± 20.4 < 0.001
Post-intervention residual stenosis, (mean ± SD, %) 26.1 ± 17.8 31.8 ± 15.9 0.012
Location of the lesion, n (%)    < 0.001
  Trachea 31 (22.0) 3 (3.3)  
  Left main bronchus 39 (27.7) 36 (39.1)  
  Right main bronchus 41 (29.1) 37 (40.2)  
  Right intermediate bronchus 30 (21.3) 16 (17.4)  
Histological types, n (%)    0.463
  Lung adenocarcinoma 4 (2.8) 1 (1.1)  
  Lung squamous cell carcinoma 108 (76.6) 78 (84.8)  
  SCLC 12 (8.5) 5 (5.4)  
  Other* 17 (12.1) 8 (8.7)  
Other treatments after intervention,** n (%)    0.366
  0 34 (24.1) 16 (17.4)  
  1 45 (31.9) 36 (39.1)  
  ≥ 2 62 (44.0) 40 (43.5)  
  1. COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, MCAS malignant central airway stenosis, SCLC small-cell lung carcinoma
  2. *Other histological types including adenoid cystic carcinoma, lymphoma, large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma, mesenchymal tumor, soft tissue sarcoma, and metastatic malignancies (esophageal cancer, gastric cancer, colorectal adenocarcinoma, and thyroid papillary carcinoma)
  3. **Other treatments including radiotherapy, chemotherapy, molecule-targeted therapy, and immunotherapy. 0, patients didn’t receive any other treatment after therapeutic bronchoscopy; 1, patients received one other treatment after therapeutic bronchoscopy; ≥ 2, patients received at least two other treatments after therapeutic bronchoscopy