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Table 2 Multivariable logistic regression of independent factors associated with the risk of ICU admission, mortality, and duration of hospitalization

From: Assessment of the HScore as a predictor of disease outcome in patients with COVID-19

Variables Crude effect measure (95% CI) P value Adjusted effect measure (95% CI) P value
Crude OR (95% CI) Adjusted OR (95% CI)
ICU admission (as outcome)
HScore
 Moderate 2.95 (1.35–6.44) 0.007 4.58 (1.78–11.79) 0.002
 High 3.4 (1.40–8.22) 0.007 4.93 (1.50–16.17) 0.008
Overweight 0.39 (0.20–o.75) 0.005 0.35 (0.14–0.82) 0.017
Diastolic Blood pressure 0.95 (0.93–0.98) 0.002 0.96 (0.92–0.99) 0.046
Loss of appetite 0.11 (0.01–0.9) 0.040 0.20 (0.001–0.25) 0.002
Fatigue 1.04 (0.50–2.19) 0.899 5.25 (1.67–16.48) 0.004
Lymphocyte 0.91 (0.87–0.95) < 0.001 0.90 (0.86–0.94) < 0.001
Hemoglobin 0.81 (0.70–0.93) 0.003 0.73 (0.60–0.88) 0.001
Age 0.99 (0.98, 1.00) 0.187 0.99 (0.97, 1.01) 0.399
Gender (Ref.: female) 0.86 (0.46, 1.63) 0.649 0.48 (0.20, 1.14) 0.097
Mortality (as outcome)
HScore 1.02 (1.01–1.03) < 0.001 1.02 (1.00–1.04) 0.009
ICU admission 25.5 (3.1–209.2) 0.003 66.06 (3.8–1160.5) 0.004
Systolic Blood pressure 0.94 (0.91–0.98) 0.006 0.93 (0.88–0.98) 0.009
Potassium 0.19 (0.05–0.72) 0.015 0.11 (0.02–0.63) 0.013
Age 0.98 (0.95, 1.00) 0.098 1.06 (0.99, 1.12) 0.083
Gender (Ref.: female) 0.47 (0.11, 1.92) 0.294 0.49 (0.06, 3.87) 0.497
Variables Crude effect measure (95% CI) P value Adjusted effect measure (95% CI) P value
Crude HR (95% CI) Adjusted HR (95% CI)
Discharge from hospital (as outcome)
HScore*     
 Moderate 0.61 (0.39–0.94) 0.024 0.60 (0.37–0.97) 0.036
 High 0.41 (0.24–0.69) 0.001 0.42 (0.22–0.78) 0.007
Cardiovascular disease 0.67 (0.38–1.21) 0.185 0.40 (0.21- 0.78) 0.007
Respiratory disease 4.24 (2.02–8.90) < 0.001 5.47 (2.39–12.52) < 0.001
Chronic kidney disease 0.52 (0.13–2.14) 0.362 11.09 (1.38–89.10) 0.024
Respiratory status 1.40 (1.09–1.81) 0.009 1.34 (1.03–1.74) 0.027
Oxygen therapy 0.43 (0.25–0.73) 0.002 0.22 (0.11- 0.45) < 0.001
Pneumonia 5.26 (2.53–10.94) < 0.001 4.56 (1.99–10.46) < 0.001
Septic shock 0.42 (0.20–0.87) 0.020 0.12 (0.04–0.34) < 0.001
White blood cell counts 0.999 (0.993–1.004) 0.719 1.006 (1.00–1.01) 0.042
Red blood cell counts 1.82 (1.40–2,36) < 0.001 1.59 (1.16–2.18) 0.004
Lymphocyte 1.03 (1.02–1.04) < 0.001 1.03 (1.01–1.04) 0.001
Aspartate aminotransferase 0.996 (0.991–1.001) 0.178 1.006 (1.00–1.01) 0.023
Alanine aminotransferase 0.995 (0.989–1.001) 0.178 0.98 (0.97–0.99) 0.011
Phosphorus 0.83 (0.74–0.93) 0.002 0.82 (0.69–0.98) 0.027
Age 0.99 (0.98, 1.00) 0.110 0.99 (0.98, 1.00) 0.419
Gender (Ref.: female) 0.79 (0.54, 1.15) 0.217 1.13 (0.73, 1.74) 0.584
  1. *Moderate and high HScore were compared with low HScore as the reference group