Skip to main content

Table 1 Patient characteristics

From: Clinical outcomes of intravenous immunoglobulin therapy in COVID-19 related acute respiratory distress syndrome: a retrospective cohort study

Variable Total (n = 590) Unmatched Matched
Routine care (n = 400) IVIG (n = 190) P value Routine care (n = 118) IVIG (n = 118) P value
Age (years) 53 (42–62) 51 (41.5–61) 56.5 (47–65)  < 0.001 52 (42–60) 53.5 (44–60) 0.36
Gender        
Male 555 (94.1%) 377 (94.2%) 178 (93.7%) 0.79 112 (94.9%) 112 (94.9%) 1.00
Female 35 (5.9%) 23 (5.8%) 12 (6.3)   6 (5.1%) 6 (5.1%)  
BMI (kg/m2) 27.2 (24.2–30.4) 26.9 (24.2–30.7) 27.6 (24.7–30.1) 0.50 26.7 (23.9–30.1) 27.69 (24.7–29.4) 0.54
Co-morbidities        
Diabetes mellitus 288 (48.8%) 198 (49.5%) 90 (47.4%) 0.63 51 (43.2%) 55 (46.6%) 0.60
Hypertension 290 (49.2%) 184 (46.0%) 106 (55.8%) 0.03 59 (50.0%) 58 (49.2%) 0.9
Dyslipidemia 68 (11.5%) 38 (9.5%) 30 (15.8%) 0.03 10 (8.5%) 12 (10.2%) 0.65
Coronary artery disease 77 (13.1%) 45 (11.3%) 32 (16.8%) 0.06 12 (10.2%) 14 (11.9%) 0.68
Chronic kidney disease 58 (9.8%) 44 (11.0%) 14 (7.4%) 0.17 4 (3.4%) 5 (4.2%) 1.00
Hemodialysis 33 (5.6%) 0 (0%) 33 (17.4%)  < 0.001 0 (0%) 0 (0%)  
Chronic respiratory illness 40 (6.8%) 22 (5.5%) 18 (9.5%) 0.07 13 (11%) 8 (6.8%) 0.25
Chronic liver disease 11 (1.9%) 10 (2.5%) 1 (0.5%) 0.12 1 (0.8%) 1 (0.8%) 1.00
Malignancy 19 (3.2%) 11 (2.8%) 8 (4.2%) 0.35 7 (5.9%) 5 (4.2%) 0.55
PaO2/FiO2 ratio (mm Hg) 124 (92–141) 130 (97.5–150) 105.35 (80–134)  < 0.001 123 (81–140) 110.7 (87.1–136) 0.38
Vasopressor 415 (70.3%) 303 (75.8%) 96 (50.5%)  < 0.001 71 (60.2%) 67 (56.8%) 0.60
Sofa score 2 (2–5) 3 (2–5) 2 (1–4)  < 0.001 2 (2–4) 2 (1–4) 0.06
Laboratory data        
CRP (mg/L) 163.3 (91.9–246.7) 166.5 (99.6–245.3) 156.2 (69.5–255) 0.29 175.4 (90.9–257) 152 (72–232.1) 0.16
Ferritin (mcg/L) 1057 (637–1625) 1017.5 (638.5–1559) 1118 (638–1942) 0.14 1168.5 (693–1565) 1118.5 (688–1924) 0.27
D-Dimer (mcg/mL) 1.25 (0.68–3.95) 1.35 (0.68–4.23) 1.17 (0.74–3.24) 0.60 1.43 (0.61–4.6) 1.13 (0.74–2.88) 0.99
Platelets (109/L) 233.5 (184–306) 240 (188–312) 221 (176–293) 0.06 249.5 (195–317) 236 (186–308) 0.51
Creatinine (micromol/L) 85 (70–111) 84 (69–110) 93 (71–113) 0.08 78 (64–98) 86 (68–108) 0.07
Bilirubin (micromol/L) 11 (8–15) 11 (8–15) 11 (7–16) 0.74 10 (8–14) 10.25 (7–14.5) 0.95
ALT (IU/L) 40 (25–64) 38 (24–59) 45 (26–70) 0.03 37 (23–64) 45 (28–70) 0.053
AST (IU/L) 51 (35–80) 50 (35–77) 54 (35–91) 0.07 50.5 (36–86) 54.5 (36–91) 0.42
Corticosteroids        
Dexamethasone 168 (28.5%) 96 (24.0%) 72 (37.9%)  < 0.001 32 (27.1%) 41 (34.7%) 0.2
Methylprednisolone 446 (75.6%) 331 (82.8%) 115 (60.5%)  < 0.001 88 (74.6%) 79 (66.9%) 0.2
Hydrocortisone 142 (24.1%) 110 (27.5%) 32 (16.8%) 0.005 15 (12.7%) 14 (11.9%) 0.84
Tocilizumab 329 (55.8%) 251 (62.7%) 78 (41.1%)  < 0.001 56 (47.5%) 54 (45.8%) 0.79
Interferon 65 (11.0%) 49 (12.3%) 15(7.9%) 0.12 11 (9.3%) 10 (8.5%) 0.82
Anti-viral drugs        
Favipiravir 78 (13.2%) 47 (11.8%) 31 (16.3%) 0.13 17 (14.4%) 23 (19.5%) 0.30
Lopinavir-Ritonavir 306 (51.9%) 229 (57.3%) 77 (40.5%)  < 0.001 58 (49.2%) 51 (43.2%) 0.36
Oseltamivir 355 (60.2%) 267 (66.8%) 88 (46.3%)  < 0.001 63 (53.4%) 58 (49.2%) 0.51
Remdesivir 2 (0.3%) 0 (0%) 2 (1.1%) 0.10 0 (0%) 0 (0%)  
Ribavirin 61 (10.3%) 50 (12.5%) 11 (5.8%) 0.01 9 (7.6%) 7 (5.9%) 0.60
  1. Data are presented as count (%) or median (interquartile range) unless otherwise indicated
  2. Laboratory data and SOFA score were obtained at baseline on ICU admission
  3. BMI, body mass index; PaO2/FiO2 ratio, ratio of partial pressure arterial oxygen and fraction of inspired oxygen; SOFA score, sequential organ failure assessment score; CRP, C-reactive protein; ALT, alanine transaminase; AST, aspartate aminotransferase