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Table 3 Results of LASSO regression with PC1 and PC2 scores as dependent variables, percentage reporting symptom at least once weekly and criteria for symptom selection.

From: Preliminary development of a questionnaire to measure the extra-pulmonary symptoms of severe asthma

Symptoms LASSO coefficients with PC1 LASSO coefficients with PC2 % of people reporting at least once per week Criteria for symptom selection*
Swollen painful joints 0.000 0.011 39  
Pain moving from one place of body to another on different days − 0.087 0.038 34 a1
Sensitive or tender skin − 0.038 0.000 44 a2
Fatigue increasing the day after you are active 0.000 0.046 46 a3
Fatigue increasing after a cold or sore throat 0.000 0.020 34  
Mental fog 0.100 0.000 46 a4
Difficulty concentrating 0.000 − 0.047 52 ac
Memory problems − 0.101 − 0.090 48 a5
Easily feel too cold − 0.024 0.000 47  
Easily feel too hot sweating − 0.051 − 0.017 61 a6
Thirsty all the time 0.000 − 0.003 47  
Bloating of the stomach − 0.083 0.000 44 a7
Nausea for no reason − 0.014 0.101 25 a8
Intolerant to some food 0.071 0.036 32 ac
Ringing in ears 0.061 0.063 34 a9
Very vivid dreams 0.000 − 0.051 40 a10
Nightmares night terrors 0.087 − 0.128 17  
Sensitivity to bright lights 0.012 0.000 26  
Sensitivity to noise 0.000 − 0.033 19  
Waking up often at night 0.000 0.144 69 ab
Racing heart 0.000 0.065 43 a11
Hands tremble or shake − 0.091 − 0.027 56 a12
Face flushes 0.000 0.074 35 a13
Running nose 0.140 0.000 36 ab
Itchy skin 0.000 − 0.114 51 ab
Head cold sore throat or ‘flu − 0.116 0.000 6  
Mouth ulcers sores in mouth 0.195 0.012 13  
Skin rash − 0.034 0.046 17  
Boils or pimples on face or body − 0.111 0.136 15  
Twitching of eyelid 0.000 0.000 16  
Twitching other than eyelid 0.000 0.109 14  
Feeling faint 0.000 0.142 19  
Numbness tingling pins and needles 0.000 − 0.107 44 a14
Loss of voice 0.076 − 0.081 13  
Urinating two or more times per night − 0.148 0.000 47 ab
Blurred vision − 0.105 0.057 26 a15
Hair loss 0.000 0.196 18  
Feeling very ill for no reason − 0.107 0.000 29 a16
  1. *a = Items on priority list; b = Items rejected due to association with asthma; c = items removed for other reasons. 1–16 symptoms to be included in the GSQ-A