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Table 1 Characteristics of patients at randomization

From: Modified high-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy versus conventional oxygen therapy in patients undergoing bronchoscopy: a randomized clinical trial

Characteristic All patients (n = 788) Modified high-flow nasal cannula oxygen group therapy (n = 392) Conventional oxygen therapy group (n = 396)
Age (years) 58.5 (49.0–66.0) 58.0 (50.0–66.0) 59.0 (48.0–66.0)
Male, no. (%) 426 (54.1) 204 (52.4) 222 (56.1)
Body mass index (kg/m2) 23.7 (21.1–26.0) 23.7 (21.3–26.0) 23.6 (21.0–26.1)
Current smoker, no. (%) 173 (22.0) 85 (21.7) 88 (22.2)
Pack-years no 30.0 (15.0–45.0) 30.0 (13.5–50.0) 30.0 (15.0–40.0)
Indication for bronchoscopy, no. (%)    
 Hemoptysis 87 (11.0) 40 (10.2) 47 (11.9)
 Unexplained chronic cough 39 (4.9) 22 (5.6) 17 (4.3)
 Non-resolving pneumonia 165 (20.9) 78 (19.9) 87 (22.0)
 Pneumonia in immunocompromised host 71 (9.0) 41 (10.5) 30 (7.6)
 Interstitial lung disease 158 (20.1) 85 (21.7) 73 (18.4)
 Suspected lung cancer 260 (33.0) 123 (31.4) 137 (34.6)
 Foreign body aspiration 8 (1.0) 3 (0.8) 5 (1.3)
Vital signs    
 Temperature, °C 36.6 ± 0.51 36.6 ± 0.49 36.6 ± 0.53
 Respiratory rate (beats/min) 17 ± 4 17 ± 5 18 ± 4
 Heart rate (beats/min) 84 ± 15 84 ± 15 83 ± 15
 Mean arterial pressure (mmHg) 93 ± 17 93 ± 20 94 ± 13
Arterial blood gas (room air)    
 pH 7.42 (7.40–7.44) 7.42 (7.40–7.44) 7.42 (7.39–7.44)
 PaO2 (mmHg) 79.0 (71.0–88.0) 80.0 (70.0–89.0) 79.0 (71.0–88.0)
 PaCO2 (mmHg) 40.0 (37.0–43.0) 40.0 (37.0–43.0) 40.0 (37.0–43.0)
 HCO3 (mmol/L) 24.4 (21.8–27.2) 24.6 (22.2–26.9) 23.8 (21.4–27.9)
 SaO2 (%) 96.0 (94.0–97.0) 96.0 (94.0–97.0) 96.0 (94.0–97.0)
Baseline spirometry    
 FVC (L) 3.08 ± 0.95 3.13 ± 0.91 3.03 ± 0.98
 FEV1 (L) 2.32 ± 0.78 2.36 ± 0.74 2.28 ± 0.82
 FEV1 (% predicted) 82.7 ± 12.7 81.3 ± 13.3 83.9 ± 12.2
 FEV1/FVC (%) 73.4 ± 12.8 73.7 ± 12.0 73.2 ± 13.2
 DLco (% predicted) 78.1 ± 9.9 77.9 ± 9.5 78.4 ± 10.3
Laboratory parameters    
 White blood cell (× 109/L) 6.59 (5.23–8.27) 6.34 (5.07–8.25) 6.79 (5.34–8.33)
 Platelet count (× 109/L) 237 (194–293) 232 (192–288) 242 (196–300)
 Prothrombin time (s) 11.2 (9.9–12.6) 11.1 (10.0–12.4) 11.3 (9.8–12.7)
 Fibrinogen (mg/dL) 285.1 ± 104.1 283.6 ± 104.6 286.6 ± 103.7
 C-reactive protein (mg/dL) 0.8 (0.5–1.2) 0.8 (0.5–1.1) 0.8 (0.5–1.2)
 Procalcitonin (pg/ml) 0.10 (0.08–0.12) 0.10 (0.08–0.11) 0.10 (0.08–0.12)
  1. PaO2, partial pressure of arterial oxygen; PaCO2, partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide; HCO3, bicarbonate; SaO2, arterial oxygen saturation; FVC, forced vital capacity; FEV1, forced expiratory volume in one second; DLco, diffusing capacity of lungs for carbon monoxide