Skip to main content

Table 2 Clinical endpoints, bronchoscopy-related events, and complications according to study group

From: Modified high-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy versus conventional oxygen therapy in patients undergoing bronchoscopy: a randomized clinical trial

Outcome All patients (n = 788) Modified high-flow nasal cannula oxygen group therapy (n = 392) Conventional nasal cannula oxygen group (n = 396) P
Primary endpoint     
 The number of patients with a single moment of SpO2 < 90% during bronchoscopy, no. (%) 163 (20.7) 49 (12.5) 114 (28.8)  < 0.001
Secondary endpoint     
 Duration of bronchoscopy (s) 780 (592–965) 685 (485–850) 800 (614–990)  < 0.001
Other endpoints     
 Duration of SpO2 < 90% (s) 98 (29–130) 22 (14–27) 115 (96–137)  < 0.001
 The number of patients with procedural discontinuation no. (%) 141 (17.9) 39 (9.9) 102 (25.8)  < 0.001
Bronchoalveolar lavage     
 Volume of fluid instilled (ml) 60 (40–100) 60 (40–100) 60 (40–100) 0.751
 Volume of fluid recovered (ml) 20 (15–45) 22 (15–45) 20 (15–45) 0.483
Bronchial brushing, no. (%) 736 (93.4) 367 (93.6) 369 (93.2) 0.803
Endobronchial biopsy, no. (%) 677 (85.9) 337 (86.0) 340 (85.9) 0.964
Transbronchial lung biopsy, no. (%) 235 (29.8) 115 (29.3) 120 (30.3) 0.767
Events during bronchoscopy, no. (%)     
 Agitation 119 (15.1) 43 (11.0) 76 (19.2) 0.001
 Bronchospasm 30 (3.8) 12 (3.1) 18 (4.5) 0.276
 Arrhythmias     0.559
  Ventricular arrhythmias 8 (1.0) 3 (0.8) 5 (1.3) 0.484
  Supraventricular tachycardias 16 (2.0) 4 (1.0) 12 (3.0) 0.045
  Premature atrial contractions 25 (3.2) 11 (2.8) 14 (3.5) 0.559
  Premature ventricular contraction 14 (1.8) 5 (1.3) 9 (2.3) 0.289
 Hypertension (systolic blood pressure > 180 mmHg) 124 (15.7) 64 (16.3) 60 (15.2) 0.651
 Epistaxis 40 (5.1) 18 (4.6) 22 (5.6) 0.538
 Mucosal bleeding 204 (25.9) 103 (26.3) 101 (25.5) 0.805
Complications of bronchoscopy, no. (%)     
 Fever 162 (20.6) 78 (19.9) 84 (21.2) 0.648
 Pneumothorax 33 (4.2) 10 (2.6) 23 (5.8) 0.022
 Hemorrhage 51 (6.5) 25 (6.4) 26 (6.6) 0.915
  1. SpO2, peripheral arterial oxygen saturation