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Table 3 Clinical characteristics of patients according to etiology

From: Immune alveolitis in interstitial lung disease: an attractive cytological profile in immunocompromised patients

Clinical characteristics (N = 192) PCP (N = 59) DILD (N = 49) Viral pneumonia (N = 34) HP (N = 25) Granuloma-tosis (N = 25) P*
Age (years) 57 ± 16 65 ± 13 54 ± 17 60 ± 14 50 ± 15 0.001
Male 29 (49) 26 (53) 17 (50) 16 (64) 20 (80) 0.08
Smoking status
 Smoker (NA = 3) 24 (40) 21 (43) 10 (29) 8 (32) 12 (48) 0.5
 Pack-years 18 ± 14 30 ± 30 23 ± 18 14 ± 16 21 ± 16 0.5
Comorbidities
 Immunocompromised 59 (100) 46 (94) 27 (80) 2 (8) 6 (24) 0.0001
 Solid cancer 18 (32) 27 (56) 7 (21) 5 (20) 1 (4) 0.0005
 Hematological cancer 22 (37) 7 (14) 15 (45) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0.0001
 Solid organ transplant 19 (31) 7 (15) 7 (21) 0 (0) 1 (4) 0.0008
 Bone marrow transplant 9 (15) 0 (0) 8 (23) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0.0004
 Connective tissue disease 6 (11) 6 (13) 1 (3) 1 (4) 0 (0) 0.3
 HIV 4 (7) 1 (2) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0.3
Treatments
 Corticosteroids 31 (52) 17 (34) 12 (35) 0 (0) 5 (20) 0.0005
 Dose, mg/day 20 ± 19 13 ± 10 12 ± 9 11 ± 3 0.7
 Methotrexate 6 (10) 6 (12) 2 (6) 0 (0) 2 (8) 0.4
 Mycophenolate mofetil 9 (15) 2 (4) 4 (12) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0.03
 Ciclosporin 6 (10) 4 (8) 8 (23) 0 (0) 1 (4) 0.04
 Chemotherapy 12 (20) 14 (28) 2 (5) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0.0002
 Immunotherapy 3 (5) 7 (14) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0.02
 Pneumocystis prophylaxis 13 (21) 3 (6) 15 (44) 0 (0) 1 (4) 0.0001
Physical examination
 Fever 39 (66) 15 (30) 27 (79) 2 (8) 2 (8) 0.0001
 Deterioration of general condition 9 (15) 5 (10) 6 (17) 4 (16) 3 (12) 0.9
 Cough 31 (52) 28 (57) 21 (62) 18 (72) 11 (44) 0.3
 Dyspnea 48 (81) 44 (89) 28 (82) 21 (84) 14 (56) 0.02
 Expectorations 12 (20) 7 (14) 9 (26) 7 (28) 4 (16) 0.5
 Extra-thoracic signs 2 (3) 4 (8) 2 (6) 4 (16) 14 (56) 0.0001
  1. Bold was used when the statistically significant threshold was reached
  2. Data are presented as mean ± SD or N (%)
  3. SD standard deviation, N number, NA not applicable, PCP Pneumocystis pneumonia, DILD Drug-induced lung disease, HP Hypersensitivity pneumonitis
  4. *Multiple testing issue was tackled using Benjamini–Hochberg method by limiting False Discovery Rate to 5%. Statistical significance threshold was at 3%