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Table 1 Characteristics of patients in the case and control periods

From: Typical antipsychotics is associated with increased risk of severe exacerbation in asthma patients: a nationwide population-based cohort study

Characteristics Number (%) Conditional logistic regression
Case period
(n = 18,657)
Control period
(n = 18,657)
Crude OR
(95% CI)
P value
Male 5577 (29.9) 5577 (29.9)
Age, mean (SD) 47.7 (17.9) 47.5 (17.7)   
Comorbidities     
 Heart failure 395 (2.1) 349 (1.9) 2.18 (1.49–3.18) < 0.001
 Ischemic heart disease 931 (5.0) 873 (4.7) 1.62 (1.25–2.10) < 0.001
 Stroke 530 (2.8) 498 (2.7) 1.62 (1.14–2.28) 0.007
 GERD 762 (4.1) 671 (3.6) 1.65 (1.34–2.04) < 0.001
 Obesity 77 (0.4) 49 (0.3) 4.11 (1.98–8.52) < 0.001
 Rhinosinusitis 3393 (18.2) 3125 (16.8) 1.44 (1.30–1.60) < 0.001
 Obstructive sleep apnea 51 (0.3) 44 (0.2) 1.64 (0.77–3.46) 0.198
 Psychiatric disorder     
  Anxiety 166 (0.9) 159 (0.9) 1.21 (0.76–1.92) 0.415
  Bipolar disorder 154 (0.8) 146 (0.8) 1.62 (0.81–3.23) 0.174
  Depression 747 (4.0) 741 (4.0) 1.08 (0.79–1.47) 0.633
  Schizophrenia 148 (0.8) 136 (0.7) 5.00 (1.45–17.27) 0.011
 Respiratory infection     
  Pneumonia 726 (3.9) 533 (2.9) 2.44 (2.00–2.98) < 0.001
  Acute upper airway infection 8308 (44.5) 7140 (38.3) 2.00 (1.86–2.14) < 0.001
Medications     
 Cardiovascular drugs     
  Antiplatelet 1184 (6.4) 1019 (5.5) 1.52 (1.32–1.75) < 0.001
  Cardioselective β-blockers 716 (3.8) 660 (3.5) 1.24 (1.04–1.47) 0.015
  Non-selective β-blockers 676 (3.6) 553 (3.0) 1.52 (1.29–1.78) < 0.001
  Statins 909 (4.9) 883 (4.7) 1.08 (0.93–1.25) 0.324
 Anti-inflammation     
  Colchicine 138 (0.7) 147 (0.8) 0.90 (0.67–1.22) 0.492
  NSAIDs 5175 (27.7) 3098 (16.6) 2.32 (2.19–2.47) < 0.001
  Metformin 753 (4.0) 721 (3.9) 1.15 (0.96–1.39) 0.133
 Psychoactive drugs     
  Antidepressants 957 (5.1) 857 (4.6) 1.39 (1.19–1.64) < 0.001
  Lithium 16 (0.1) 13 (0.1) 2.00 (0.50–8.00) 0.327
  Antipsychotics 713 (3.8) 601 (3.2) 1.48 (1.25–1.74) < 0.001
 Anticholinergic agents     
  Bladder 116 (0.6) 93 (0.5) 1.43 (1.01–2.04) 0.044
  Gastrointestinal tract 1442 (7.7) 888 (4.8) 1.86 (1.69–2.05) < 0.001
  Parkinsonism 107 (0.6) 100 (0.5) 1.28 (0.76–2.16) 0.358
 Antihistamine     
  First generation 3234 (17.3) 1817 (9.7) 2.26 (2.11–2.43) < 0.001
  Second/third generation 4372 (23.4) 2615 (14.0) 2.27 (2.13–2.42) < 0.001
 Inhaled bronchodilators     
  SABA 2615 (14.0) 1087 (5.8) 3.25 (2.98–3.54) < 0.001
  SAMA 305 (1.6) 60 (0.3) 6.56 (4.78–9.01) < 0.001
  SABA + SAMA 154 (0.8) 79 (0.4) 2.50 (1.80–3.47) < 0.001
  LABA 3 (0.02) 0 (0.0)
  LAMA 37 (0.2) 30 (0.2) 1.44 (0.76–2.72) 0.265
  LABA + ICS 1575 (8.4) 1217 (6.5) 1.55 (1.41–1.72) < 0.001
  LABA + LAMA + ICS 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
  ICS 381 (2.0) 283 (1.5) 1.50 (1.25–1.80) < 0.001
 Oral bronchodilators     
  Xanthium 3844 (20.6) 1771 (9.5) 3.40 (3.15–3.66) < 0.001
  Leukotriene receptor antagonists 550 (3.0) 404 (2.2) 1.78 (1.49–2.12) < 0.001
  1. GERD: gastroesophageal reflux disease; ICS: inhaled corticosteroid, LABA: long-acting β-agonist; LAMA: long-acting muscarinic antagonist; NSAID: non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug; OR: odds ratio; SABA: short-acting β-agonist; SAMA: short-acting muscarinic antagonist