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Table 2 Risk of severe asthma exacerbation by different classes of antipsychotics and doses

From: Typical antipsychotics is associated with increased risk of severe exacerbation in asthma patients: a nationwide population-based cohort study

Characteristics No. (%) Conditional logistic regression P for trend
Case period
(n = 18,657)
Control period
(n = 18,657)
Crude OR
(95% CI)
P value Adjusted ORa
(95% CI)
P value
No use of anti-psychotics 17,944 (96.18) 18,056 (96.78) Ref   Ref   
Any use of anti-psychotics 713 (3.82) 601 (3.22) 1.48 (1.25–1.74) < 0.001 1.27 (1.05–1.53) 0.015  
Antipsychotics classb        
 Typical only 269 (1.44) 193 (1.03) 1.63 (1.31–2.04) < 0.001 1.42 (1.10–1.82) 0.006  
 Atypical only 411 (2.20) 390 (2.09) 1.25 (0.98–1.59) 0.072 1.05 (0.80–1.38) 0.704  
 Both 33 (0.18) 18 (0.10) 3.03 (1.40–6.57) 0.005 2.34 (1.02–5.35) 0.045  
Dose        
 Low (≤ 0.25 DDD) 604 (3.24) 504 (2.70) 1.47 (1.24–1.74) < 0.001 1.25 (1.03–1.50) 0.023 0.038
 Medium to high (> 0.25 DDD) 109 (3.24) 97 (0.52) 1.57 (1.11–2.21) 0.011 1.47 (1.00–2.15) 0.049  
Dose (for typical only)        
 Low (≤ 0.25 DDD) 255 (1.37) 184 (0.99) 1.61 (1.28–2.02) < 0.001 1.37 (1.06–1.75) 0.015 0.006
 Medium to high (> 0.25 DDD) 14 (0.08) 9 (0.05) 2.85 (0.96–8.50) 0.060 4.58 (1.36–15.40) 0.014  
Dose (for atypical only)        
 Low (≤ 0.25 DDD) 326 (1.75) 311 (1.67) 1.27 (0.99–1.63) 0.066 1.06 (0.80–1.41) 0.682 0.767
 Medium to high (> 0.25 DDD) 85 (0.46) 79 (0.42) 1.36 (0.91–2.03) 0.134 1.18 (0.76–1.83) 0.468  
  1. DDD: defined daily dose; OR: odds ratio
  2. aAdjusted for heart failure, ischemic heart disease, stroke, gastroesophageal reflux disease, obesity disorder, rhinosinusitis, schizophrenia, depression, bipolar disorder, pneumonia, acute upper airway infection, antiplatelet agents, cardioselective β-blocker, non-selective β-blocker, NSAID, anti-psychotics, anti-depressants, bladder anticholinergic agents, gastrointestinal tract anticholinergic agents, first generation anti-histamine, second/third generation anti-histamine, short-acting beta-agonist, short-acting muscarinic antagonist, short-acting beta-agonist plus short-acting muscarinic antagonist, long-acting beta-agonist plus long-acting beta-agonist, long-acting beta-agonist, xanthine inhibitor, leukotriene receptor antagonist
  3. bSee Additional file 1: Table S1