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Table 1 Total direct and indirect costs of ILD.

From: A systematic review on the economic burden of interstitial lung disease and the cost-effectiveness of current therapies

Study Country Study period Cost component Population Sample size Mean annual cost per patient (2020 USD) GDP per capita
(2020 USD)
Proportion of GDP per capita (%)
Direct Costs
Collard [2] US 2001–2008 Total direct IPF 9286 32,834 58,160 56
Collard [40] US 2000–2011 Total direct IPF 7855 24,198 57,395 42
Mortimer [41] US 2008–2014 Total direct IPF 4716 23,773 60,183 40
Raimundo [42] US 2009–2011 Total direct IPF 3619 70,051 57,395 122
Corral [33] US 2014–2018 Total direct IPF 1455 116,927 64,999 180
Kalluri [34] Canada 2012–2018 Total direct IPF 2768 49,251 47,879 103
Tarride [11] Canada 2006–2011 Total direct IPF 8683 10,991 60,088 18
Kim [43] Korea 2009–2013 Total direct IPF 18,006 1,824 30,200 6
Hilberg [19] Denmark 2003–2009 Total direct IPF 120 30,513 70,167 43
Olson [44] US 2014–2016 Total direct Non-IPF PF-ILD 373 85,589 62,567 137
Frank [45] Germany 2010–2013 Total direct IIP 14,453 18,196 51,437 35
Morrisroe [46] Australia 2008–2015 Total direct SSc-ILD 335 8,473 61,975 14
Gayle [47] England 2005–2016 Total direct SSc-ILD 127 10,398* 44,264 23
Fisher [48] US 2003–2014 Total direct SSc-ILD 219 42,878 60,183 71
Zhou [20] US 2005–2015 Total direct SSc-ILD 479 39,560 62,092 64
Raimundo [49] US 2004–2013 Total direct RA-ILD 11,845 38,907 59,001 66
Indirect Costs
Algamdi [16] Canada 2015–2017 Productivity loss Fibrotic ILD 148 9,313 47,650 20
Algamdi [17] Canada 2015–2017 Productivity loss CTD-ILD 113 10,902 47,650 23
Zhou [20] US 2005–2015 Productivity loss SSc-ILD 479 7,149 62,092 12
Hilberg [19] Denmark 2003–2009 Income loss IPF 120 9,901 70,167 14
  1. Costs are attributable (i.e., total costs directly associated with the ILD, rather than excess costs relative to a control). The GDP per capita is based on the study country. The proportion of GDP per capita represents the mean annual cost per patient relative to the country’s GDP per capita based on 2020 USD [12]. Productivity loss includes absenteeism and presenteeism. *Median cost. Abbreviations: GDP, gross domestic product; IPF, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis; PF-ILD, progressive fibrosing interstitial lung disease; RA, rheumatoid arthritis; SSc, systemic sclerosis