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Infectious, Rare and Idiopathic Pulmonary Diseases

This section concerns all aspects of pulmonary infection, rare and idiopathic lung diseases including, but not limited to: prevention, diagnosis and management, as well as related molecular genetics, and pathophysiology.

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  1. Platypnea-orthodeoxia syndrome (POS) is a rare condition characterized by dyspnoea (platypnea) and arterial desaturation in the upright position resolved in the supine position (orthodeoxia). Intracardiac shun...

    Authors: Charlotte Vanhomwegen, Olivier Taton, Nicolas Selvais, Olivier Vanhove and Dimitri Leduc

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:126

    Content type: Case report

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  2. Intravesical instillation of bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) as a treatment for superficial bladder cancer rarely causes pulmonary complications. While published cases have been pathologically characterized by ...

    Authors: Mariko Itai, Mari Yamasue, Shuichi Takikawa, Kosaku Komiya, Yukiko Takeno, Yuriko Igarashi, Yasushi Takeshita, Kazufumi Hiramatsu, Satoshi Mitarai and Jun-ichi Kadota

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:115

    Content type: Case report

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  3. While sleep disruption is a common complaint among children with cystic fibrosis (CF), only a few studies have investigated insomnia in adults. The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with ins...

    Authors: Pauline Mulette, Bruno Ravoninjatovo, Camille Guguen, Coralie Barbe, Julien Ancel, Sandra Dury, Antoine Dumazet, Dominique Perdu, Jeanne-Marie Perotin, Thomas Guillard, François Lebargy, Gaëtan Deslee and Claire Launois

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:108

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Gender-related factors might affect vulnerability to Covid-19. The aim of this study was to describe the role of gender on clinical features and 28-day mortality in Covid-19 patients.

    Authors: Federico Raimondi, Luca Novelli, Arianna Ghirardi, Filippo Maria Russo, Dario Pellegrini, Roberta Biza, Roberta Trapasso, Lisa Giuliani, Marisa Anelli, Mariangela Amoroso, Chiara Allegri, Gianluca Imeri, Claudia Sanfilippo, Sofia Comandini, England Hila, Leonardo Manesso…

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:96

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Chronic lymphoproliferative disorder of natural killer cells (CLPD-NK) is an extremely rare haematological disease. To the best of our knowledge, pulmonary infiltration in CLPD-NK has not been reported before....

    Authors: Jinjing Zhang, Pingping Wang and Xiaojing Yan

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:94

    Content type: Case report

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  6. Cryptococcus is one of the major fungal pathogens infecting the lungs. Pulmonary cryptococcal infection is generally considered a community-acquired condition caused by inhalation of dust contaminated with funga...

    Authors: Wei-Gang Pan, Bao-Chung Chen, Yao-Feng Li, Rui-Xin Wu and Ching-Hsun Wang

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:76

    Content type: Case report

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  7. Scarring central airway stenosis (SCAS) is a potentially life-threatening condition with debilitating symptoms. Interventional bronchoscopy is increasingly used to relieve symptoms in patients with SCAS, but r...

    Authors: Kunyan Sun, Hong Zhang, Wei Zhang, Yuan Cheng and Guangfa Wang

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:73

    Content type: Research article

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  8. The most important target cell of SARS-CoV-2 is Type II pneumocyte which produces and secretes pulmonary surfactant (PS) that prevents alveolar collapse. PS instillation therapy is dramatically effective for i...

    Authors: Hiroko Kitaoka, Hisato Kobayashi, Takayuki Takimoto and Takashi Kijima

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:62

    Content type: Technical advance

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  9. Anti-synthetase syndrome (ASSD) is a chronic autoimmune condition characterized by antibodies directed against an aminoacycl transfer RNA synthetase (ARS) along with a group of clinical features including the ...

    Authors: Xi Zhan, Wei Yan, Ying Wang, Qing Li, Xuhua Shi, Yanli Gao and Qiao Ye

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:57

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Malnutrition and altered body composition are well-documented in chronic pulmonary diseases; however, investigation of nutritional status in interstitial lung disease (ILD) is limited. This study aimed to desc...

    Authors: Alisar A. Kanjrawi, Lara Mathers, Susanne Webster, Tamera J. Corte and Sharon Carey

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:51

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) have progressive and disabling symptoms, as well as a burden of treatments and a difficult clinical evaluation that make health-related quality of life a particularly ...

    Authors: Miguel Ángel Amor-García, Sara Ibáñez-García, Xandra García-González, Teresa Mombiela, Cristina Villanueva-Bueno, Ana Herranz-Alonso and María Sanjurjo-Sáez

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:48

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a common nocosomial infection in intensive care unit (ICU). Local microbiological surveillance of pathogens and resistance patterns for early-onset VAP (EOVAP) and late...

    Authors: Pavarit Arayasukawat, Apichart So-ngern, Wipa Reechaipichitkul, Worawat Chumpangern, Itthiphat Arunsurat, Pailin Ratanawatkul and Wanna Chuennok

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:47

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Whipple’s disease is a chronic infectious disease caused by the Gram-positive bacterium Tropheryma whipplei (TW), which not only affects the gastrointestinal tract and causes malabsorption of nutrients, but sever...

    Authors: Wei Li, Qun Zhang, Yanling Xu, Xiyue Zhang, Qian Huang and Zhenzhong Su

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:29

    Content type: Case report

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  14. Since there was no previous report, we analyzed the relationship between French Risk Stratification parameters in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and mean pulmonary arterial pressures (mPAP) using Japan ...

    Authors: Yuichi Tamura, Hiraku Kumamaru, Kohtaro Abe, Toru Satoh, Hiroaki Miyata, Aiko Ogawa, Nobuhiro Tanabe, Masaru Hatano, Atsushi Yao, Ichizo Tsujino, Keiichi Fukuda, Hiroshi Kimura, Masataka Kuwana, Hiromi Matsubara and Koichiro Tatsumi

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:28

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Pulmonary radiological findings of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been well documented and range from scattered ground-glass infiltrates in milder cases to confluent ground-glass change, de...

    Authors: Zaid Zoumot, Maria-Fernanda Bonilla, Ali S. Wahla, Irfan Shafiq, Mateen Uzbeck, Rania M. El-Lababidi, Fadi Hamed, Mohamed Abuzakouk and Mahmoud ElKaissi

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:24

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Anti-synthetase syndrome (ASS) is an uncommon immune-mediated entity characterized by myositis, interstitial lung disease (ILD), non-erosive arthritis, and less common features such as fever, Raynaud’s phenome...

    Authors: Nasam Alfraji, Usman Mazahir, Moiuz Chaudhri and Jeffrey Miskoff

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:11

    Content type: Case report

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  17. Bronchopleural fistula is a rare but life-threatening event with limited therapeutic options. We aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of the modified silicone stent in patients with post-surgical bronc...

    Authors: Junli Zeng, Xuemei Wu, Zhide Chen, Meihua Zhang and Mingyao Ke

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:10

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Some patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) develop pneumothorax. However, the characteristics of pneumothorax in patients with IPF have not been elucidated. The purpose of this study was to clarify...

    Authors: Ryo Yamazaki, Osamu Nishiyama, Kyuya Gose, Sho Saeki, Hiroyuki Sano, Takashi Iwanaga and Yuji Tohda

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:5

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Congenital bronchial atresia is a rare pulmonary abnormality characterized by the disrupted communication between the central and the peripheral bronchus and is typically asymptomatic. Although it can be sympt...

    Authors: Gaku Kuwabara, Risa Sone, Waki Imoto, Kazushi Yamairi, Wataru Shibata, Kazuhiro Oshima, Koichi Yamada, Kazuhiro Yamada, Tetsuya Watanabe, Kazuhisa Asai, Hiroaki Komatsu, Nobuhiro Izumi, Noritoshi Nishiyama, Tomoya Kawaguchi and Hiroshi Kakeya

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:2

    Content type: Case report

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  20. During the ongoing pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), lockdown periods have changed the way that people and communities live, work and interact.

    Authors: Daniela Savi, Giada Valente, Alessandra Iacovelli, Federica Olmati, Mario Bezzi and Paolo Palange

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:325

    Content type: Case report

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  21. Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs), a diverse group of diffuse lung diseases, mainly affect the lung parenchyma. The low-throughput ‘omics’ technologies (genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics) and relative drug...

    Authors: Yupeng Li, Gangao Wu, Yu Shang, Yue Qi, Xue Wang, Shangwei Ning and Hong Chen

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:323

    Content type: Database

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  22. The purpose of our study was to assess the frequency of occult foreign body aspiration (FBA) and to evaluate the diagnostic difficulties and therapeutic methods for these patients.

    Authors: Bo Liu, Fengxia Ding, Yong An, Yonggang Li, Zhengxia Pan, Gang Wang, Jiangtao Dai, Hongbo Li and Chun Wu

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:320

    Content type: Research article

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  23. The COVID-19 pandemic is having profound psychological impacts on populations globally, with increasing levels of stress, anxiety, and depression being reported, especially in people with pre-existing medical ...

    Authors: Keir E. J. Philip, Bradley Lonergan, Andrew Cumella, Joe Farrington-Douglas, Michael Laffan and Nicholas S. Hopkinson

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:319

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Subclinical tuberculosis (TB) is a potential target for public health intervention because its early identification may reduce TB transmission. We aimed to describe the clinical and laboratory findings of subc...

    Authors: Jinsoo Min, Chaeuk Chung, Sung Soo Jung, Hye Kyeong Park, Sung-Soon Lee and Ki Man Lee

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:316

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Some patients with interstitial pneumonia with autoimmune features (IPAF) showed a progressive course despite therapy. This study aimed to evaluate whether serial changes in the serum levels of surfactant prot...

    Authors: Jingxian Wang, Peiyan Zheng, Zhifeng Huang, Huimin Huang, Mingshan Xue, Chenxi Liao, Baoqing Sun and Nanshan Zhong

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:315

    Content type: Research article

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  26. The most commonly isolated organisms in a parapneumonic effusion include S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, and S. aureus. If unusual organisms are isolated from the pleural space, further investigation is warranted t...

    Authors: Kranthikiran Earasi, Caitlin Welch, Adam Zelickson, Clinton Westover, Chintan Ramani, Cameron Sumner and Eric M. Davis

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:314

    Content type: Case report

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  27. The recurrence of positive SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid test results in patients with COVID-19 is becoming more important and warrants more attention.

    Authors: Jian Wu, Juan Cheng, Xiaowei Shi, Jun Liu, Biao Huang, Xinguo Zhao, Yuanwang Qiu, Jiong Yu, Hongcui Cao and Lanjuan Li

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:308

    Content type: Case report

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  28. Non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has been reported to develop in patients with interstitial pneumonia (IP); however, clinical, radiological, and pathological features remain to be elucidated.

    Authors: Kazumasa Ogawa, Hironori Uruga, Takeshi Fujii, Sakashi Fujimori, Tadasu Kohno, Atsuko Kurosaki, Kazuma Kishi and Shinji Abe

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:307

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Usual interstitial pneumonia can present with a probable pattern on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT), but the probability of identifying usual interstitial pneumonia by surgical lung biopsy in such c...

    Authors: Regina Celia Carlos Tibana, Maria Raquel Soares, Karin Mueller Storrer, Gustavo de Souza Portes Meirelles, Katia Hidemi Nishiyama, Israel Missrie, Ester Nei Aparecida Martins Coletta, Rimarcs Gomes Ferreira and Carlos Alberto de Castro Pereira

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:299

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Cholangiocarcinoma is a rare gastrointestinal malignancy that arises within the intrahepatic, perihilar, and/or extrahepatic bile ducts. Individuals with cystic fibrosis are at increased risk for gastrointesti...

    Authors: Sara W. Carson, Kelly E. Craven, David Nauen, Kristina Montemayor, Mark Yarchoan, William R. Burns, Christian A. Merlo and Natalie E. West

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:298

    Content type: Case report

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  31. Mucosal nodules can be caused by infection, inflammation and neoplastic disease. Many noninfectious diseases, such as eosinophilia, amyloidosis, sarcoidosis, Wegener’s granuloma, langerhans cell histiocytosis ...

    Authors: Lujin Wu, Qianru Leng, Yan Wang, Daowen Wang and Danlei Yang

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:296

    Content type: Case report

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  32. The close association between bronchiectasis and nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease (NTM-PD) is well-known. However, the clinical impact of subsequent new-onset NTM-PD in bronchiectasis patients ha...

    Authors: Nakwon Kwak, Jong Hyuk Lee, Hyung-Jun Kim, Sung A. Kim and Jae-Joon Yim

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:293

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Pulmonary benign metastasizing leiomyoma (PBML) is a rare disease characterized by leiomyoma of benign histopathology existing in the lungs. Because of its rarity, limited literature with a single case or smal...

    Authors: Rong Fan, Fengzhi Feng, Hua Yang, Kaifeng Xu, Shanqing Li, Yan You, Xirun Wan and Lan Zhu

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:292

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a devastating condition characterized by progressive lung function decline and early mortality. While early accurate diagnosis is essential for IPF treatment, data evalua...

    Authors: Shehabaldin Alqalyoobi, Evans R. Fernández Pérez and Justin M. Oldham

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:289

    Content type: Research article

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  35. The number of reports on sarcoidosis complicated by hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) is limited, and most describe cases complicated by chronic bird-related HP. Here, we present for the first time a case with Pr...

    Authors: Michiru Sawahata, Noritaka Sakamoto, Hideaki Yamasawa, Yuki Iijima, Hirotoshi Kawata, Tetsuo Yamaguchi, Keisuke Uchida, Yoshinobu Eishi, Masashi Bando and Koichi Hagiwara

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:288

    Content type: Case report

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  36. Although cigarette smoking may have a negative impact on the clinical outcome of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB), few studies have investigated the impact of smoking-associated lung diseases. Emphysema is a major...

    Authors: Naoki Takasaka, Yoshitaka Seki, Ikumi Fujisaki, Shota Uchiyama, Sachi Matsubayashi, Akihito Sato, Yumie Yamanaka, Kyuto Odashima, Taisuke Kazuyori, Aya Seki, Hiroshi Takeda, Takeo Ishikawa and Kazuyoshi Kuwano

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:287

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Regular physical activity (PA) is a valued part of cystic fibrosis (CF) care. Although the accelerometer, SenseWear Armband (SWA), accurately measures habitual PA in CF, it is mostly used for research purposes...

    Authors: Daniela Savi, Luigi Graziano, Barbara Giordani, Stefano Schiavetto, Corrado De Vito, Giuseppe Migliara, Nicholas J. Simmonds, Paolo Palange and J. Stuart Elborn

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:285

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Due to the fact that pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) is a highly infectious respiratory disease characterized by high herd susceptibility and hard to be treated, this study aimed to search novel effective biomark...

    Authors: Yahong Sun, Gang Chen, Zhihao Liu, Lina Yu and Yan Shang

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:279

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a key process in the onset and development of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) with unclear mechanisms. Our previous studies found that bleomycin and tunicamycin c...

    Authors: Ling Gong, Gang Liu, Honglan Zhu, Caihong Li, Pengmei Li, Changlu Liu, Hongbo Tang, Kaifeng Wu, Jie Wu, Daishun Liu and Xiaoping Tang

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:278

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Sjögren’s syndrome (SS) is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by deteriorated exocrine gland function with associated lymphocytic infiltration. However, there are few pathological studies on bronchial...

    Authors: Hiroko Okabayashi, Tomohisa Baba, Ryota Ootoshi, Ryota Shintani, Erina Tabata, Satoshi Ikeda, Takashi Niwa, Tsuneyuki Oda, Ryo Okuda, Akimasa Sekine, Hideya Kitamura, Shigeru Komatsu, Eri Hagiwara, Tamiko Takemura, Takuro Sakagami and Takashi Ogura

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:277

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is an ongoing pandemic that profoundly challenges healthcare systems all over the world. Fever, ...

    Authors: Elise Peys, Dieter Stevens, Yannick Vande Weygaerde, Thomas Malfait, Laurens Hermie, Philippe Rogiers, Pieter Depuydt and Eva Van Braeckel

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:275

    Content type: Case report

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  42. Treatment of pulmonary sarcoidosis is recommended in case of significant symptoms, impaired or deteriorating lung function. Evidence-based treatment recommendations are limited and largely based on expert opin...

    Authors: Vivienne Kahlmann, Montse Janssen Bonás, Catharina C. Moor, Coline H. M. van Moorsel, Mirjam Kool, Raisa Kraaijvanger, Jan C. Grutters, Mayka Overgaauw, Marcel Veltkamp and Marlies S. Wijsenbeek

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:271

    Content type: Study protocol

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  43. Reports on the application of metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) to the diagnosis of peripheral pulmonary lesions (PPLs) are scarce. There have been no studies investigating the optimal specimen typ...

    Authors: Qing Wang, Bo Wu, Donglin Yang, Chao Yang, Zhixian Jin, Jie Cao and Jing Feng

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:268

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Idiopathic pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (IPPFE) is a rare lung disease that manifests as parenchymal fibrosis of the upper lung lobe and pleura. There have been no reports of IPPFE complicating pregnancy. ...

    Authors: Aiko Sekine, Kohei Seo, Satoshi Matsukura, Masaaki Sato, Aya Shinozaki-Ushiku, Takashi Ogura, Akihiko Kitami, Mitsutaka Kadokura, Satoshi Dohi, Kiyotake Ichizuka and Masaaki Nagatsuka

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:264

    Content type: Case report

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  45. Nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) lung disease is one of a growing number of chronic health problems that is difficult to cure in aging societies. While it is important to be vigilant about associated comorbi...

    Authors: Shunsuke Uno, Takanori Asakura, Kozo Morimoto, Kimio Yoshimura, Yoshifumi Uwamino, Tomoyasu Nishimura, Yoshihiko Hoshino and Naoki Hasegawa

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:262

    Content type: Research article

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  46. The optimal duration of antibiotic treatment for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is not well established. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of reducing the duration of antibiotic treatment on l...

    Authors: Ane Uranga, Amaia Artaraz, Amaia Bilbao, Jose María Quintana, Ignacio Arriaga, Maider Intxausti, Jose Luis Lobo, Julia Amaranta García, Jesus Camino and Pedro Pablo España

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:261

    Content type: Research article

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    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:21

  47. Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) is an extremely rare disease with pulmonary fibrosis (PF), oculocutaneous albinism, induced platelet dysfunction, and granulomatous colitis. Although patients with HPS-associate...

    Authors: Yukari Kato, Motoyasu Kato, Hiroaki Ihara, Eri Hayakawa, Kohei Shibayama, Keita Miura, Tomoko Yamada, Yoichiro Mitsuishi, Takehito Shukuya, Jun Ito, Takeshi Matsunaga, Tadashi Sato, Kenji Suzuki and Kazuhisa Takahashi

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:259

    Content type: Case report

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