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Infectious, Rare and Idiopathic Pulmonary Diseases

This section concerns all aspects of pulmonary infection, rare and idiopathic lung diseases including, but not limited to: prevention, diagnosis and management, as well as related molecular genetics, and pathophysiology.

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  1. Whipple’s disease is a chronic infectious disease caused by the Gram-positive bacterium Tropheryma whipplei (TW), which not only affects the gastrointestinal tract and causes malabsorption of nutrients, but sever...

    Authors: Wei Li, Qun Zhang, Yanling Xu, Xiyue Zhang, Qian Huang and Zhenzhong Su

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:29

    Content type: Case report

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  2. Since there was no previous report, we analyzed the relationship between French Risk Stratification parameters in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and mean pulmonary arterial pressures (mPAP) using Japan ...

    Authors: Yuichi Tamura, Hiraku Kumamaru, Kohtaro Abe, Toru Satoh, Hiroaki Miyata, Aiko Ogawa, Nobuhiro Tanabe, Masaru Hatano, Atsushi Yao, Ichizo Tsujino, Keiichi Fukuda, Hiroshi Kimura, Masataka Kuwana, Hiromi Matsubara and Koichiro Tatsumi

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:28

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Pulmonary radiological findings of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been well documented and range from scattered ground-glass infiltrates in milder cases to confluent ground-glass change, de...

    Authors: Zaid Zoumot, Maria-Fernanda Bonilla, Ali S. Wahla, Irfan Shafiq, Mateen Uzbeck, Rania M. El-Lababidi, Fadi Hamed, Mohamed Abuzakouk and Mahmoud ElKaissi

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:24

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Anti-synthetase syndrome (ASS) is an uncommon immune-mediated entity characterized by myositis, interstitial lung disease (ILD), non-erosive arthritis, and less common features such as fever, Raynaud’s phenome...

    Authors: Nasam Alfraji, Usman Mazahir, Moiuz Chaudhri and Jeffrey Miskoff

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:11

    Content type: Case report

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  5. Bronchopleural fistula is a rare but life-threatening event with limited therapeutic options. We aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of the modified silicone stent in patients with post-surgical bronc...

    Authors: Junli Zeng, Xuemei Wu, Zhide Chen, Meihua Zhang and Mingyao Ke

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:10

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Some patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) develop pneumothorax. However, the characteristics of pneumothorax in patients with IPF have not been elucidated. The purpose of this study was to clarify...

    Authors: Ryo Yamazaki, Osamu Nishiyama, Kyuya Gose, Sho Saeki, Hiroyuki Sano, Takashi Iwanaga and Yuji Tohda

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:5

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Congenital bronchial atresia is a rare pulmonary abnormality characterized by the disrupted communication between the central and the peripheral bronchus and is typically asymptomatic. Although it can be sympt...

    Authors: Gaku Kuwabara, Risa Sone, Waki Imoto, Kazushi Yamairi, Wataru Shibata, Kazuhiro Oshima, Koichi Yamada, Kazuhiro Yamada, Tetsuya Watanabe, Kazuhisa Asai, Hiroaki Komatsu, Nobuhiro Izumi, Noritoshi Nishiyama, Tomoya Kawaguchi and Hiroshi Kakeya

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:2

    Content type: Case report

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  8. During the ongoing pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), lockdown periods have changed the way that people and communities live, work and interact.

    Authors: Daniela Savi, Giada Valente, Alessandra Iacovelli, Federica Olmati, Mario Bezzi and Paolo Palange

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:325

    Content type: Case report

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  9. Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs), a diverse group of diffuse lung diseases, mainly affect the lung parenchyma. The low-throughput ‘omics’ technologies (genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics) and relative drug...

    Authors: Yupeng Li, Gangao Wu, Yu Shang, Yue Qi, Xue Wang, Shangwei Ning and Hong Chen

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:323

    Content type: Database

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  10. The purpose of our study was to assess the frequency of occult foreign body aspiration (FBA) and to evaluate the diagnostic difficulties and therapeutic methods for these patients.

    Authors: Bo Liu, Fengxia Ding, Yong An, Yonggang Li, Zhengxia Pan, Gang Wang, Jiangtao Dai, Hongbo Li and Chun Wu

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:320

    Content type: Research article

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  11. The COVID-19 pandemic is having profound psychological impacts on populations globally, with increasing levels of stress, anxiety, and depression being reported, especially in people with pre-existing medical ...

    Authors: Keir E. J. Philip, Bradley Lonergan, Andrew Cumella, Joe Farrington-Douglas, Michael Laffan and Nicholas S. Hopkinson

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:319

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Subclinical tuberculosis (TB) is a potential target for public health intervention because its early identification may reduce TB transmission. We aimed to describe the clinical and laboratory findings of subc...

    Authors: Jinsoo Min, Chaeuk Chung, Sung Soo Jung, Hye Kyeong Park, Sung-Soon Lee and Ki Man Lee

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:316

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Some patients with interstitial pneumonia with autoimmune features (IPAF) showed a progressive course despite therapy. This study aimed to evaluate whether serial changes in the serum levels of surfactant prot...

    Authors: Jingxian Wang, Peiyan Zheng, Zhifeng Huang, Huimin Huang, Mingshan Xue, Chenxi Liao, Baoqing Sun and Nanshan Zhong

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:315

    Content type: Research article

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  14. The most commonly isolated organisms in a parapneumonic effusion include S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, and S. aureus. If unusual organisms are isolated from the pleural space, further investigation is warranted t...

    Authors: Kranthikiran Earasi, Caitlin Welch, Adam Zelickson, Clinton Westover, Chintan Ramani, Cameron Sumner and Eric M. Davis

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:314

    Content type: Case report

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  15. The recurrence of positive SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid test results in patients with COVID-19 is becoming more important and warrants more attention.

    Authors: Jian Wu, Juan Cheng, Xiaowei Shi, Jun Liu, Biao Huang, Xinguo Zhao, Yuanwang Qiu, Jiong Yu, Hongcui Cao and Lanjuan Li

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:308

    Content type: Case report

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  16. Non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has been reported to develop in patients with interstitial pneumonia (IP); however, clinical, radiological, and pathological features remain to be elucidated.

    Authors: Kazumasa Ogawa, Hironori Uruga, Takeshi Fujii, Sakashi Fujimori, Tadasu Kohno, Atsuko Kurosaki, Kazuma Kishi and Shinji Abe

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:307

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Usual interstitial pneumonia can present with a probable pattern on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT), but the probability of identifying usual interstitial pneumonia by surgical lung biopsy in such c...

    Authors: Regina Celia Carlos Tibana, Maria Raquel Soares, Karin Mueller Storrer, Gustavo de Souza Portes Meirelles, Katia Hidemi Nishiyama, Israel Missrie, Ester Nei Aparecida Martins Coletta, Rimarcs Gomes Ferreira and Carlos Alberto de Castro Pereira

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:299

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Cholangiocarcinoma is a rare gastrointestinal malignancy that arises within the intrahepatic, perihilar, and/or extrahepatic bile ducts. Individuals with cystic fibrosis are at increased risk for gastrointesti...

    Authors: Sara W. Carson, Kelly E. Craven, David Nauen, Kristina Montemayor, Mark Yarchoan, William R. Burns, Christian A. Merlo and Natalie E. West

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:298

    Content type: Case report

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  19. Mucosal nodules can be caused by infection, inflammation and neoplastic disease. Many noninfectious diseases, such as eosinophilia, amyloidosis, sarcoidosis, Wegener’s granuloma, langerhans cell histiocytosis ...

    Authors: Lujin Wu, Qianru Leng, Yan Wang, Daowen Wang and Danlei Yang

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:296

    Content type: Case report

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  20. The close association between bronchiectasis and nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease (NTM-PD) is well-known. However, the clinical impact of subsequent new-onset NTM-PD in bronchiectasis patients ha...

    Authors: Nakwon Kwak, Jong Hyuk Lee, Hyung-Jun Kim, Sung A. Kim and Jae-Joon Yim

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:293

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Pulmonary benign metastasizing leiomyoma (PBML) is a rare disease characterized by leiomyoma of benign histopathology existing in the lungs. Because of its rarity, limited literature with a single case or smal...

    Authors: Rong Fan, Fengzhi Feng, Hua Yang, Kaifeng Xu, Shanqing Li, Yan You, Xirun Wan and Lan Zhu

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:292

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a devastating condition characterized by progressive lung function decline and early mortality. While early accurate diagnosis is essential for IPF treatment, data evalua...

    Authors: Shehabaldin Alqalyoobi, Evans R. Fernández Pérez and Justin M. Oldham

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:289

    Content type: Research article

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  23. The number of reports on sarcoidosis complicated by hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) is limited, and most describe cases complicated by chronic bird-related HP. Here, we present for the first time a case with Pr...

    Authors: Michiru Sawahata, Noritaka Sakamoto, Hideaki Yamasawa, Yuki Iijima, Hirotoshi Kawata, Tetsuo Yamaguchi, Keisuke Uchida, Yoshinobu Eishi, Masashi Bando and Koichi Hagiwara

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:288

    Content type: Case report

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  24. Although cigarette smoking may have a negative impact on the clinical outcome of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB), few studies have investigated the impact of smoking-associated lung diseases. Emphysema is a major...

    Authors: Naoki Takasaka, Yoshitaka Seki, Ikumi Fujisaki, Shota Uchiyama, Sachi Matsubayashi, Akihito Sato, Yumie Yamanaka, Kyuto Odashima, Taisuke Kazuyori, Aya Seki, Hiroshi Takeda, Takeo Ishikawa and Kazuyoshi Kuwano

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:287

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Regular physical activity (PA) is a valued part of cystic fibrosis (CF) care. Although the accelerometer, SenseWear Armband (SWA), accurately measures habitual PA in CF, it is mostly used for research purposes...

    Authors: Daniela Savi, Luigi Graziano, Barbara Giordani, Stefano Schiavetto, Corrado De Vito, Giuseppe Migliara, Nicholas J. Simmonds, Paolo Palange and J. Stuart Elborn

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:285

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Due to the fact that pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) is a highly infectious respiratory disease characterized by high herd susceptibility and hard to be treated, this study aimed to search novel effective biomark...

    Authors: Yahong Sun, Gang Chen, Zhihao Liu, Lina Yu and Yan Shang

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:279

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a key process in the onset and development of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) with unclear mechanisms. Our previous studies found that bleomycin and tunicamycin c...

    Authors: Ling Gong, Gang Liu, Honglan Zhu, Caihong Li, Pengmei Li, Changlu Liu, Hongbo Tang, Kaifeng Wu, Jie Wu, Daishun Liu and Xiaoping Tang

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:278

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Sjögren’s syndrome (SS) is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by deteriorated exocrine gland function with associated lymphocytic infiltration. However, there are few pathological studies on bronchial...

    Authors: Hiroko Okabayashi, Tomohisa Baba, Ryota Ootoshi, Ryota Shintani, Erina Tabata, Satoshi Ikeda, Takashi Niwa, Tsuneyuki Oda, Ryo Okuda, Akimasa Sekine, Hideya Kitamura, Shigeru Komatsu, Eri Hagiwara, Tamiko Takemura, Takuro Sakagami and Takashi Ogura

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:277

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is an ongoing pandemic that profoundly challenges healthcare systems all over the world. Fever, ...

    Authors: Elise Peys, Dieter Stevens, Yannick Vande Weygaerde, Thomas Malfait, Laurens Hermie, Philippe Rogiers, Pieter Depuydt and Eva Van Braeckel

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:275

    Content type: Case report

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  30. Treatment of pulmonary sarcoidosis is recommended in case of significant symptoms, impaired or deteriorating lung function. Evidence-based treatment recommendations are limited and largely based on expert opin...

    Authors: Vivienne Kahlmann, Montse Janssen Bonás, Catharina C. Moor, Coline H. M. van Moorsel, Mirjam Kool, Raisa Kraaijvanger, Jan C. Grutters, Mayka Overgaauw, Marcel Veltkamp and Marlies S. Wijsenbeek

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:271

    Content type: Study protocol

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  31. Reports on the application of metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) to the diagnosis of peripheral pulmonary lesions (PPLs) are scarce. There have been no studies investigating the optimal specimen typ...

    Authors: Qing Wang, Bo Wu, Donglin Yang, Chao Yang, Zhixian Jin, Jie Cao and Jing Feng

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:268

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Idiopathic pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (IPPFE) is a rare lung disease that manifests as parenchymal fibrosis of the upper lung lobe and pleura. There have been no reports of IPPFE complicating pregnancy. ...

    Authors: Aiko Sekine, Kohei Seo, Satoshi Matsukura, Masaaki Sato, Aya Shinozaki-Ushiku, Takashi Ogura, Akihiko Kitami, Mitsutaka Kadokura, Satoshi Dohi, Kiyotake Ichizuka and Masaaki Nagatsuka

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:264

    Content type: Case report

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  33. Nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) lung disease is one of a growing number of chronic health problems that is difficult to cure in aging societies. While it is important to be vigilant about associated comorbi...

    Authors: Shunsuke Uno, Takanori Asakura, Kozo Morimoto, Kimio Yoshimura, Yoshifumi Uwamino, Tomoyasu Nishimura, Yoshihiko Hoshino and Naoki Hasegawa

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:262

    Content type: Research article

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  34. The optimal duration of antibiotic treatment for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is not well established. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of reducing the duration of antibiotic treatment on l...

    Authors: Ane Uranga, Amaia Artaraz, Amaia Bilbao, Jose María Quintana, Ignacio Arriaga, Maider Intxausti, Jose Luis Lobo, Julia Amaranta García, Jesus Camino and Pedro Pablo España

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:261

    Content type: Research article

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    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:21

  35. Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) is an extremely rare disease with pulmonary fibrosis (PF), oculocutaneous albinism, induced platelet dysfunction, and granulomatous colitis. Although patients with HPS-associate...

    Authors: Yukari Kato, Motoyasu Kato, Hiroaki Ihara, Eri Hayakawa, Kohei Shibayama, Keita Miura, Tomoko Yamada, Yoichiro Mitsuishi, Takehito Shukuya, Jun Ito, Takeshi Matsunaga, Tadashi Sato, Kenji Suzuki and Kazuhisa Takahashi

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:259

    Content type: Case report

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  36. Secondary organizing pneumonia (SOP) is difficult to distinguish from cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP) considering various clinical situations. SOP caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis is rare; indeed, it h...

    Authors: Eun Jin Kim and Kyung Chan Kim

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:252

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Evidence of mediastinal Lymph Node Enlargement (LNE) on CT scan is a common finding in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). We sought to investigate whether the involvement of mediastinal lymph nodes is associ...

    Authors: Giacomo Sgalla, Anna Rita Larici, Nicoletta Golfi, Mariarosaria Calvello, Alessandra Farchione, Annemilia Del Ciello, Francesco Varone, Bruno Iovene, Riccardo Manfredi and Luca Richeldi

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:249

    Content type: Research article

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  38. One forth whole-world population is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), but 90% of them are asymptotic latent infection without any symptoms but positive result in IFN-γ release assay. There is lack o...

    Authors: Zhenhong Wei, Yuanting Li, Chaojun Wei, Yonghong Li, Hui Xu, Yu Wu, Yanjuan Jia, Rui Guo, Jing Jia, Xiaoming Qi, Zhenhao Li and Xiaoling Gao

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:248

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Chest CT scan and chest x-rays show characteristic radiographic findings in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. Chest x-ray can be used in diagnosis and follow up in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. The study a...

    Authors: Liqa A. Rousan, Eyhab Elobeid, Musaab Karrar and Yousef Khader

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:245

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Factors affecting the safety of bronchoscopy in patients with malignant hematologic disorders have not been well described. We evaluated the safety of bronchoscopy and describe factors affecting its complication ...

    Authors: Hironori Uruga, Toshitaka Sato, Aya Nishida, Naoyuki Uchida, Masanori Tsuji, Shuhei Moriguchi, Yui Takahashi, Kazumasa Ogawa, Kyoko Murase, Shigeo Hanada, Hisashi Takaya, Atsushi Miyamoto, Nasa Morokawa, Muneyoshi Kimura, Hideki Araoka, Rumiko Tsuchihashi…

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:243

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) often leads to hospitalisation and invasive aspergillosis (IA) is a serious complication. Aspergillus sensitisation may worsen symptoms in COPD.

    Authors: Emily E. Hammond, Charles S. McDonald, Jørgen Vestbo and David W. Denning

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:241

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Increasing cases of pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) in immunocompetent patients with severe influenza have been reported. Howevere, the risk factors for occurence and death are largely unknown.

    Authors: Liang Chen, Xiudi Han, Yanli Li, Chunxiao Zhang and Xiqian Xing

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:239

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is an important cause of acute respiratory failure (ARF) in immunocompromised patients, yet no actual clinical tool suitably identifies patients at risk. Recently, a multivariable pre...

    Authors: Ryoung-Eun Ko, Jongmin Lee, Soo Jin Na, Na Ri Jeong, Seon Woo Kim and Kyeongman Jeon

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:236

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is a hereditary pulmonary and extra-pulmonary disease that occurs equally in men and women. However, a difference in morbidity and mortality rates between the sexes has been long documente...

    Authors: G. Y. Lam, J. Goodwin, P. Wilcox and B. S. Quon

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:234

    Content type: Case report

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  45. A study of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) burden by chest roentgenography (CXR) with reference to interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) is still lacking in rheumatic patients of an intermediate tuberculo...

    Authors: Ping-Huai Wang, Chou-Han Lin, Ting-Hui Chang and Chien-Sheng Wu

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:232

    Content type: Research article

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  46. Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) angiography is a useful examination to detect the source of the bleeding in patients with hemoptysis. The aim of the study was to prospectively evaluate the role and cl...

    Authors: Huu Y Le, Van Nam Le, Ngoc Hung Pham, Anh Tuan Phung, Thanh Tung Nguyen and Quyet Do

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:231

    Content type: Research article

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  47. Oxygen is an essential therapy for hypoxemia but is scarce in low-income settings. Oxygen conserving devices optimize delivery, but to date have been designed for adults in high-income settings. Here we presen...

    Authors: Jerry Mulondo, Stella Maleni, Hellen Aanyu-Tukamuhebwa, Ezekiel Mupere, Alfred Onubia Andama, Chin Hei Ng, Stephen Burkot, Ella M. E. Forgie, Qaasim Mian, Christine M. Bachman, Gerard Rummery, Daniel Lieberman, David Bell, Michael T. Hawkes and Akos Somoskovi

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:230

    Content type: Research article

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  48. Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a chronic, genetic, incurable disease that affects primarily the respiratory and gastrointestinal systems. End-stage lung disease is the leading cause of death in people with CF, and lu...

    Authors: Sigrid Ladores, Leigh Ann Bray, Janet Brown, Jessica Corcoran, Jeremy Jordan and Erin Buczek

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:224

    Content type: Case report

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