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Infectious, Rare and Idiopathic Pulmonary Diseases

This section concerns all aspects of pulmonary infection, rare and idiopathic lung diseases including, but not limited to: prevention, diagnosis and management, as well as related molecular genetics, and pathophysiology.

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  1. Reports on the application of metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) to the diagnosis of peripheral pulmonary lesions (PPLs) are scarce. There have been no studies investigating the optimal specimen typ...

    Authors: Qing Wang, Bo Wu, Donglin Yang, Chao Yang, Zhixian Jin, Jie Cao and Jing Feng

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:268

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Idiopathic pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (IPPFE) is a rare lung disease that manifests as parenchymal fibrosis of the upper lung lobe and pleura. There have been no reports of IPPFE complicating pregnancy. ...

    Authors: Aiko Sekine, Kohei Seo, Satoshi Matsukura, Masaaki Sato, Aya Shinozaki-Ushiku, Takashi Ogura, Akihiko Kitami, Mitsutaka Kadokura, Satoshi Dohi, Kiyotake Ichizuka and Masaaki Nagatsuka

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:264

    Content type: Case report

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  3. Nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) lung disease is one of a growing number of chronic health problems that is difficult to cure in aging societies. While it is important to be vigilant about associated comorbi...

    Authors: Shunsuke Uno, Takanori Asakura, Kozo Morimoto, Kimio Yoshimura, Yoshifumi Uwamino, Tomoyasu Nishimura, Yoshihiko Hoshino and Naoki Hasegawa

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:262

    Content type: Research article

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  4. The optimal duration of antibiotic treatment for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is not well established. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of reducing the duration of antibiotic treatment on l...

    Authors: Ane Uranga MD, Amaia Artaraz MD, Amaia Bilbao MD, Jose María Quintana MD, Ignacio Arriaga MD, Maider Intxausti MD, Jose Luis Lobo MD, Julia Amaranta García MD, Jesus Camino MD and Pedro Pablo España MD

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:261

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) is an extremely rare disease with pulmonary fibrosis (PF), oculocutaneous albinism, induced platelet dysfunction, and granulomatous colitis. Although patients with HPS-associate...

    Authors: Yukari Kato, Motoyasu Kato, Hiroaki Ihara, Eri Hayakawa, Kohei Shibayama, Keita Miura, Tomoko Yamada, Yoichiro Mitsuishi, Takehito Shukuya, Jun Ito, Takeshi Matsunaga, Tadashi Sato, Kenji Suzuki and Kazuhisa Takahashi

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:259

    Content type: Case report

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  6. Secondary organizing pneumonia (SOP) is difficult to distinguish from cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP) considering various clinical situations. SOP caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis is rare; indeed, it h...

    Authors: Eun Jin Kim and Kyung Chan Kim

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:252

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Evidence of mediastinal Lymph Node Enlargement (LNE) on CT scan is a common finding in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). We sought to investigate whether the involvement of mediastinal lymph nodes is associ...

    Authors: Giacomo Sgalla, Anna Rita Larici, Nicoletta Golfi, Mariarosaria Calvello, Alessandra Farchione, Annemilia Del Ciello, Francesco Varone, Bruno Iovene, Riccardo Manfredi and Luca Richeldi

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:249

    Content type: Research article

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  8. One forth whole-world population is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), but 90% of them are asymptotic latent infection without any symptoms but positive result in IFN-γ release assay. There is lack o...

    Authors: Zhenhong Wei, Yuanting Li, Chaojun Wei, Yonghong Li, Hui Xu, Yu Wu, Yanjuan Jia, Rui Guo, Jing Jia, Xiaoming Qi, Zhenhao Li and Xiaoling Gao

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:248

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Chest CT scan and chest x-rays show characteristic radiographic findings in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. Chest x-ray can be used in diagnosis and follow up in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. The study a...

    Authors: Liqa A. Rousan, Eyhab Elobeid, Musaab Karrar and Yousef Khader

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:245

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Factors affecting the safety of bronchoscopy in patients with malignant hematologic disorders have not been well described. We evaluated the safety of bronchoscopy and describe factors affecting its complication ...

    Authors: Hironori Uruga, Toshitaka Sato, Aya Nishida, Naoyuki Uchida, Masanori Tsuji, Shuhei Moriguchi, Yui Takahashi, Kazumasa Ogawa, Kyoko Murase, Shigeo Hanada, Hisashi Takaya, Atsushi Miyamoto, Nasa Morokawa, Muneyoshi Kimura, Hideki Araoka, Rumiko Tsuchihashi…

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:243

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) often leads to hospitalisation and invasive aspergillosis (IA) is a serious complication. Aspergillus sensitisation may worsen symptoms in COPD.

    Authors: Emily E. Hammond, Charles S. McDonald, Jørgen Vestbo and David W. Denning

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:241

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Increasing cases of pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) in immunocompetent patients with severe influenza have been reported. Howevere, the risk factors for occurence and death are largely unknown.

    Authors: Liang Chen, Xiudi Han, Yanli Li, Chunxiao Zhang and Xiqian Xing

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:239

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is an important cause of acute respiratory failure (ARF) in immunocompromised patients, yet no actual clinical tool suitably identifies patients at risk. Recently, a multivariable pre...

    Authors: Ryoung-Eun Ko, Jongmin Lee, Soo Jin Na, Na Ri Jeong, Seon Woo Kim and Kyeongman Jeon

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:236

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is a hereditary pulmonary and extra-pulmonary disease that occurs equally in men and women. However, a difference in morbidity and mortality rates between the sexes has been long documente...

    Authors: G. Y. Lam, J. Goodwin, P. Wilcox and B. S. Quon

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:234

    Content type: Case report

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  15. A study of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) burden by chest roentgenography (CXR) with reference to interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) is still lacking in rheumatic patients of an intermediate tuberculo...

    Authors: Ping-Huai Wang, Chou-Han Lin, Ting-Hui Chang and Chien-Sheng Wu

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:232

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) angiography is a useful examination to detect the source of the bleeding in patients with hemoptysis. The aim of the study was to prospectively evaluate the role and cl...

    Authors: Huu Y Le, Van Nam Le, Ngoc Hung Pham, Anh Tuan Phung, Thanh Tung Nguyen and Quyet Do

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:231

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Oxygen is an essential therapy for hypoxemia but is scarce in low-income settings. Oxygen conserving devices optimize delivery, but to date have been designed for adults in high-income settings. Here we presen...

    Authors: Jerry Mulondo, Stella Maleni, Hellen Aanyu-Tukamuhebwa, Ezekiel Mupere, Alfred Onubia Andama, Chin Hei Ng, Stephen Burkot, Ella M. E. Forgie, Qaasim Mian, Christine M. Bachman, Gerard Rummery, Daniel Lieberman, David Bell, Michael T. Hawkes and Akos Somoskovi

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:230

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a chronic, genetic, incurable disease that affects primarily the respiratory and gastrointestinal systems. End-stage lung disease is the leading cause of death in people with CF, and lu...

    Authors: Sigrid Ladores, Leigh Ann Bray, Janet Brown, Jessica Corcoran, Jeremy Jordan and Erin Buczek

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:224

    Content type: Case report

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  19. The flow-volume (FV) curve pattern in the pulmonary function test (PFT) for obstructive lung diseases is widely recognized. However, there are few reports on FV curve pattern in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (...

    Authors: Hiroaki Nakagawa, Ryota Otoshi, Kohsuke Isomoto, Takuma Katano, Tomohisa Baba, Shigeru Komatsu, Eri Hagiwara, Yasutaka Nakano, Ichiro Kuwahira and Takashi Ogura

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:214

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a group of heterogeneous primary immunodeficiencies characterised by a dysregulated and impaired immune response. In addition to an increased susceptibility to infect...

    Authors: Jake E. Cowen, James Stevenson, Madhusudan Paravasthu, James Darroch, Anu Jacob, Salaheddin Tueger, John R. Gosney, Anneliese Simons, Lisa G. Spencer and Eoin P. Judge

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:205

    Content type: Case report

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  21. Adiponectin is a biomarker closely related to heart failure. However, its role in pulmonary hypertension remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the association between adiponectin and hemodynamic abno...

    Authors: Dongling Luo, Pengyuan Chen, Ziyang Yang, Yongheng Fu, Yigao Huang, Hezhi Li, Jimei Chen, Jian Zhuang and Caojin Zhang

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:204

    Content type: Research article

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  22. COVID-19 is an infectious disease caused by a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). The immunopathogenesis of the infection is currently unknown. Healthcare workers (HCWs) are at highest risk of infection and disease.

    Authors: Giovanni Sotgiu, Alessandra Barassi, Monica Miozzo, Laura Saderi, Andrea Piana, Nicola Orfeo, Claudio Colosio, Giovanni Felisati, Matteo Davì, Alberto Giovanni Gerli and Stefano Centanni

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:203

    Content type: Research article

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  23. The clinical landscape of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) has evolved in terms of disease definition and classification, trial designs, available therapies and treatment strategies as well as clinical gu...

    Authors: Max Schlueter, Amélie Beaudet, Evan Davies, Binu Gurung and Andreas Karabis

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:202

    Content type: Research article

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  24. To investigate the use of do-not-resuscitate (DNR) orders in patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and the association with mortality.

    Authors: Gertrud Baunbæk Egelund, Andreas Vestergaard Jensen, Pelle Trier Petersen, Stine Bang Andersen, Bjarne Ørskov Lindhardt, Gernot Rohde, Pernille Ravn and Christian von Plessen

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:201

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Prednisone has been shown to reverse lung function declines in hypersensitivity pneumonitis patients without established fibrosis. Second line immunosuppressants like azathioprine and mycophenolate mofetil hav...

    Authors: Sungryong Noh, Ruchi Yadav, Manshi Li, Xiaofeng Wang, Debasis Sahoo, Daniel A. Culver and Aman Pande

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:199

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Dermatomyositis (DM) is a systemic autoimmune inflammatory disorder that affects primarily skin, muscle and lung, frequently associated with interstitial lung disease (ILD). The objective of this study is to i...

    Authors: Yueyan Lou, Yu Zheng, Bijun Fan, Liyan Zhang, Feng Zhu, Xiaodong Wang, Zhiwei Chen, Xiaoming Tan and Qing Wei

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:196

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Advanced lung disease in adult cystic fibrosis (CF) drives most clinical care requirements. The aim was to evaluate outcome (time to death while in the study) in a cohort of adult CF patients with severe lung ...

    Authors: Guilherme Figueiredo Silva, Nicholas J. Simmonds and Paulo de Tarso Roth Dalcin

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:194

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Bronchiolar adenoma(BA) is a recently recognized, rare tumor of the bronchioles. It can be divided into proximal and distal types according to the proportion of mucinous and ciliated cells on the luminal surfa...

    Authors: Yajing Sun, Min Liu, Zhongmin Jiang and Baojiang Li

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:192

    Content type: Case report

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  29. In patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) treated with pirfenidone (Esbriet®, Genentech USA, Inc. South San Francisco, CA.), effectively managing treatment-related adverse events (AEs) may improve a...

    Authors: Franck F. Rahaghi, Zeenat Safdar, Anne Whitney Brown, Joao A. de Andrade, Kevin R. Flaherty, Robert J. Kaner, Christopher S. King, Maria L. Padilla, Imre Noth, Mary Beth Scholand, Adrian Shifren and Steven D. Nathan

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:191

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Pirfenidone and nintedanib are antifibrotic therapies which slow disease progression in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), an irreversible, progressive lung disease with poor prognosis. We compared adherence...

    Authors: Mitra Corral, Kathryn DeYoung and Amanda M. Kong

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:188

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease (PVOD) and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) share an overlapping disease phenotype. Hence it is necessary to distinguish them.

    Authors: Xiaofang Zeng, Fan Chen, Anandharajan Rathinasabapathy, Tangzhiming Li, Agila Adnan Ali Mohammed Mohammed and Zaixin Yu

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:186

    Content type: Case report

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  32. Accurately diagnosing pleural effusion is a frequent and significant problem in clinical practice. Combining pleural biomarkers with patients’ age may be a valuable method for diagnosing TPE. We sought to eval...

    Authors: Chun-Guo Jiang, Wen Wang, Qiong Zhou, Xiu-Zhi Wu, Xiao-Juan Wang, Zhen Wang, Kan Zhai and Huan-Zhong Shi

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:178

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Norwegian guideline recommendations on first-line empirical antibiotic prescribing in hospitalised patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) are penicillin G/V in monotherapy, or penicillin G in combina...

    Authors: June Utnes Høgli, Beate Hennie Garcia, Kristian Svendsen, Vegard Skogen and Lars Småbrekke

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:169

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Pulmonary Cryptococcosis is a common fungal infection mainly caused by Cryptococcus neoformans/C.gattii species in immunocompromised patients. Cases of pulmonary cryptococcosis in patients with normal immune func...

    Authors: Kelin Yao, Xiaofang Qiu, Hongjie Hu, Yuxin Han, Wenming Zhang, Ruiming Xia, Liang Wang and Jieming Fang

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:161

    Content type: Case report

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  35. Ceftriaxone (CTRX) and ampicillin/sulbactam (ABPC/SBT) are recommended by various guidelines as the first-line antibiotics for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). However, which of these antibiotics is more ef...

    Authors: Nobuyoshi Hamao, Isao Ito, Satoshi Konishi, Naoya Tanabe, Masahiro Shirata, Issei Oi, Mitsuhiro Tsukino, Hisako Matsumoto, Yoshiro Yasutomo, Seizo Kadowaki and Toyohiro Hirai

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:160

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Whereas Burkholderia infections are recognized to impair prognosis in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, there is no recommendation to date for early eradication therapy. The aim of our study was to analyse the curre...

    Authors: Vianney Gruzelle, Hélène Guet-Revillet, Christine Segonds, Stéphanie Bui, Julie Macey, Raphaël Chiron, Marine Michelet, Marlène Murris-Espin and Marie Mittaine

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:159

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disease of unknown etiology. Clinical cohort studies of different populations are important to understand the high variability in clinical presentation and disease cours...

    Authors: Hok Sreng Te, David M. Perlman, Chetan Shenoy, Daniel J. Steinberger, Rebecca J. Cogswell, Henri Roukoz, Erik J. Peterson, Lin Zhang, Tadashi L. Allen and Maneesh Bhargava

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:155

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Variants in the gene encoding bone morphogenetic protein receptor type II (BMPR2) are the most common genetic cause of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), whereas biallelic variants in the eukaryotic translati...

    Authors: Qixian Zeng, Hang Yang, Bingyang Liu, Yanyun Ma, Zhihong Liu, Qianlong Chen, Wenke Li, Qin Luo, Zhihui Zhao, Zhou Zhou and Changming Xiong

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:150

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (vEDS) is a rare autosomal dominant hereditary collagen disease caused by a defect or deficiency in the pro-α1 chain of type III procollagen encoded by the COL3A1 gene. Patients...

    Authors: Tingting Wan, Jinyan Ye, Peiliang Wu, Mengshi Cheng, Baihong Jiang, Hailong Wang, Jianmin Li, Jun Ma, Liangxing Wang and Xiaoying Huang

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:149

    Content type: Case report

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  40. We assessed the rate of and predictors for all-cause mortality in patients with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) receiving plasma exchange (PLEX) and evaluated the surviva...

    Authors: Pil Gyu Park, Byung-Woo Yoo, Jason Jungsik Song, Yong-Beom Park and Sang-Won Lee

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:147

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Pulmonary tuberculosis is one of the most common infectious diseases worldwide. Patients with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis with negative smear are recommended to undergo further tests including sputum indu...

    Authors: Wen Luo, Yihua Lin, Zhibin Li, Wanyu Wang and Yonghong Shi

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:146

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia (PCD) is also known as immotile-cilia syndrome, an autosomal recessive disorder of ciliary function, leading to mucus retention in the respiratory system in childhood. Our knowledge ...

    Authors: Fuad Al Mutairi, Randa Alkhalaf, Abdullah Alkhorayyef, Fayhan Alroqi, Alyafee Yusra, Muhammad Umair, Fetaini Nouf, Amjad Khan, Alharbi Meshael, Aleidi Hamad, Alaujan Monira, Abdulaziz Asiri, Kheloud M. Alhamoudi and Majid Alfadhel

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:141

    Content type: Case report

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  43. Although typical and atypical CT image findings of COVID-19 are reported in current studies, the CT image features of COVID-19 overlap with those of viral pneumonia and other respiratory diseases. Hence, it is...

    Authors: Lin Luo, Zhendong Luo, Yizhen Jia, Cuiping Zhou, Jianlong He, Jianxun Lyu and Xinping Shen

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:129

    Content type: Research article

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  44. While antifibrotic drugs significantly decrease lung function decline in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), there is still an unmet need to halt disease progression. Antioxidative therapy with N-acetylcystei...

    Authors: Hanyu Shi, Dawei Yin, Francesco Bonella, Michael Kreuter, Ute Oltmanns, Xuren Li, Shouchun Peng and Luqing Wei

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:128

    Content type: Research article

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  45. Improvement in health-related quality of life (HRQL) has been suggested as an alternative treatment goal of non-tuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease (NTM-PD). This study was performed to elucidate the l...

    Authors: Nakwon Kwak, Sung A Kim, Sun Mi Choi, Jinwoo Lee, Chang-Hoon Lee and Jae-Joon Yim

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:126

    Content type: Research article

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