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Infectious, Rare and Idiopathic Pulmonary Diseases

Section edited by Sanjay Chotirmall and Giovanni Sotgiu

This section concerns all aspects of pulmonary infection, rare and idiopathic lung diseases including, but not limited to: prevention, diagnosis and management, as well as related molecular genetics, and pathophysiology.

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  1. Content type: Research article

    Risk assessment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) contributes to its management. Unfortunately, the existing risk assessment approaches are defective for clinicians to practice in daily clinical setting...

    Authors: Wei Xiong, Yunfeng Zhao, Mei Xu, Bigyan Pudasaini, Xuejun Guo and Jinming Liu

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2018 18:161

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  2. Content type: Case report

    Until recently, lung transplantation was not considered in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). HIV seropositive patients with suppressed viral loads can now expect long-term survival with the adv...

    Authors: Shaun Ong, Robert D Levy, John Yee, Nilu Partovi, Andrew Churg, Philippe Roméo, Jean Chalaoui, Roland Nador, Alissa Wright, Hélène Manganas and Christopher J Ryerson

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2018 18:162

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  3. Content type: Research article

    We explored the hypothesized importance of early knowledge of microbiological etiology in patients with pleural infection, including comorbidity and treatment factors in the outcome analyses.

    Authors: Christian Niels Meyer, Karin Armbruster, Michael Kemp, Trine Rolighed Thomsen and Ram Benny Dessau

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2018 18:160

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  4. Content type: Research article

    The sweat test (ST) is the gold standard for the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis (CF). However, little is known about sweat induction using different types of currents and waves. In this context, our objective wa...

    Authors: Carla Cristina Souza Gomez, Fernando Augusto Lima Marson, Maria Fátima Servidoni, Antônio Fernando Ribeiro, Maria Ângela Gonçalves Oliveira Ribeiro, Veruska Acioli Lopes Gama, Eduardo Tavares Costa, José Dirceu Ribeiro and Francisco Ubaldo Vieira Junior

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2018 18:153

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  5. Content type: Research article

    Nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) pulmonary disease has conventionally been classified on the basis of radiology into fibrocavitary and nodular-bronchiectatic disease. Whilst being of great clinical utility, ...

    Authors: Steven A. Cowman, Joseph Jacob, Sayed Obaidee, R. Andres Floto, Robert Wilson, Charles S. Haworth and Michael R. Loebinger

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2018 18:145

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  6. Content type: Case report

    Pulmonary nocardiosis frequently develops as an opportunistic infection in cell-mediated immunosuppressive patients, and sometimes requires differentiation from pulmonary malignancy. Ectopic adrenocorticotropi...

    Authors: Keigo Kobayashi, Takanori Asakura, Makoto Ishii, Soichiro Ueda, Hidehiro Irie, Hiroyuki Ozawa, Kohei Saitoh, Isao Kurihara, Hiroshi Itoh and Tomoko Betsuyaku

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2018 18:142

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  7. Content type: Case report

    Approximately a quarter of patients with advanced sarcoidosis develop pulmonary hypertension (PH), which affects their prognosis. We report unusual case of confirmed chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertensi...

    Authors: Andrzej Labyk, Dominik Wretowski, Sabina Zybińska-Oksiutowicz, Aleksandra Furdyna, Katarzyna Ciesielska, Dorota Piotrowska-Kownacka, Olga Dzikowska –Diduch, Barbara Lichodziejewska, Andrzej Biederman, Piotr Pruszczyk and Marek Roik

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2018 18:139

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  8. Content type: Research article

    Yellow nail syndrome (YNS) is a rare disease characterized by the triad of thickened, slow-growing yellow nails, lymphedema, and chronic respiratory manifestations. The cause of YNS is not known; however, it i...

    Authors: Sachi Matsubayashi, Manabu Suzuki, Tomoyuki Suzuki, Ayako Shiozawa, Konomi Kobayashi, Satoru Ishii, Motoyasu Iikura, Shinyu Izumi, Koichiro Kudo and Haruhito Sugiyama

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2018 18:138

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  9. Content type: Research article

    Pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex (pMAC) disease is a chronic, slowly progressive disease. The aim of the present study was to determine the association of six-minute walk test (6MWT) parameters with pulmonar...

    Authors: Kazuma Yagi, Takanori Asakura, Ho Namkoong, Shoji Suzuki, Takahiro Asami, Satoshi Okamori, Tatsuya Kusumoto, Yohei Funatsu, Hirofumi Kamata, Tomoyasu Nishimura, Makoto Ishii, Tomoko Betsuyaku and Naoki Hasegawa

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2018 18:114

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  10. Content type: Research article

    Vitamin D is involved in the host immune response toward Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, the efficacy of vitamin D supplementation on sputum conversion, clinical response to treatment, adverse events, and mo...

    Authors: Hong-xia Wu, Xiao-feng Xiong, Min Zhu, Jia Wei, Kai-quan Zhuo and De-yun Cheng

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2018 18:108

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  11. Content type: Research article

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a rare, progressive disease with poor prognosis. However, there is limited information available on the characteristics of PAH patients outside of North America and Europe. T...

    Authors: Ana Beatriz Valverde, Juliana M. Soares, Karynna P. Viana, Bruna Gomes, Claudia Soares and Rogerio Souza

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2018 18:106

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  12. Content type: Research article

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is associated with bacterial pulmonary infections and neutrophil-dominated inflammation in the airways. The aim of this study was to evaluate the neutrophil-derived protein Heparin-binding...

    Authors: Gisela Hovold, Victoria Palmcrantz, Fredrik Kahn, Arne Egesten and Lisa I. Påhlman

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2018 18:104

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  13. Content type: Research article

    “Velcro-type” crackles on chest auscultation are considered a typical acoustic finding of Fibrotic Interstitial Lung Disease (FILD), however whether they may have a role in the early detection of these disorde...

    Authors: Giacomo Sgalla, Simon L. F. Walsh, Nicola Sverzellati, Sophie Fletcher, Stefania Cerri, Borislav Dimitrov, Dragana Nikolic, Anna Barney, Fabrizio Pancaldi, Luca Larcher, Fabrizio Luppi, Mark G. Jones, Donna Davies and Luca Richeldi

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2018 18:103

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  14. Content type: Research article

    Regular airway clearance by chest physiotherapy and/or exercise is critical to lung health in cystic fibrosis (CF). Combination of cycling exercise and chest physiotherapy using the Flutter® device on sputum p...

    Authors: Thomas Radtke, Lukas Böni, Peter Bohnacker, Marion Maggi-Beba, Peter Fischer, Susi Kriemler, Christian Benden and Holger Dressel

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2018 18:99

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  15. Content type: Research article

    Understanding the risk factors that are associated with the development of interstitial lung disease might have an important role in understanding the pathogenetic mechanism of interstitial lung disease as wel...

    Authors: Won-Il Choi, Sonila Dauti, Hyun Jung Kim, Sun Hyo Park, Jae Seok Park and Choong Won Lee

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2018 18:96

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  16. Content type: Research article

    Active pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is associated with intra-hospital spread of the disease. Expeditious diagnosis and isolation are critical for infection control. However, factors that lead to delayed isolati...

    Authors: Sho Nishiguchi, Shusaku Tomiyama, Izumi Kitagawa and Yasuharu Tokuda

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2018 18:94

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  17. Content type: Case report

    Plague is a life-threatening disease caused by the bacterium, Yersinia pestis. Madagascar is the leading country for human plague cases worldwide. Human plague is a serious disease, particularly in its septicaemi...

    Authors: Voahangy Andrianaivoarimanana, Eric Bertherat, Rojo Rajaonarison, Tiana Rakotondramaro, Christophe Rogier and Minoarisoa Rajerison

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2018 18:92

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  18. Content type: Research article

    lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) has been to be a surrogate marker of inflammation in OSA. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that the concentration of LBP is elevated in adult patients with obstr...

    Authors: Yinfeng Kong, Zhijun Li, Tingyu Tang, Haiyan Wu, Juan Liu, Liang Gu, Tian Zhao and Qingdong Huang

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2018 18:90

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  19. Content type: Research article

    Mortality prediction of pneumonia by severity scores in patients with multiple underlying health conditions has not fully been investigated. This prospective cohort study is to identify mortality-associated un...

    Authors: Sugihiro Hamaguchi, Motoi Suzuki, Kota Sasaki, Masahiko Abe, Takao Wakabayashi, Eiichiro Sando, Makito Yaegashi, Shimpei Morimoto, Norichika Asoh, Naohisa Hamashige, Masahiro Aoshima, Koya Ariyoshi and Konosuke Morimoto

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2018 18:88

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  20. Content type: Research article

    Those affected by advanced fibrotic interstitial lung diseases have limited treatment options and in the terminal stages, the focus of care is on symptom management. However, quantitatively, little is known ab...

    Authors: Sabrina Carvajalino, Carla Reigada, Miriam J. Johnson, Mendwas Dzingina and Sabrina Bajwah

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2018 18:78

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  21. Content type: Research article

    Data on the lung microbiome in HIV-infected children is limited. The current study sought to determine the lung microbiome in HIV-associated bronchiectasis and to assess its association with pulmonary exacerba...

    Authors: Refiloe Masekela, Solize Vosloo, Stephanus N. Venter, Wilhelm Z. de Beer and Robin J. Green

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2018 18:87

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  22. Content type: Research article

    Bronchiectasis is a chronic respiratory condition. Persistent bacterial colonisation in the stable state with increased and sometimes altered bacterial burden during exacerbations are accepted as key features ...

    Authors: Alicia B. Mitchell, Bassel Mourad, Lachlan Buddle, Matthew J. Peters, Brian G. G. Oliver and Lucy C. Morgan

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2018 18:84

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  23. Content type: Review

    Bronchiectasis is an incurable lung disease characterised by irreversible airway dilatation. It causes symptoms including chronic productive cough, dyspnoea, and recurrent respiratory infections often requirin...

    Authors: Katy L. M. Hester, Julia Newton, Tim Rapley and Anthony De Soyza

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2018 18:80

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  24. Content type: Review

    Bronchiectasis is a common feature of severe inherited and acquired pulmonary disease conditions. Among inherited diseases, cystic fibrosis (CF) is the major disorder associated with bronchiectasis, while acqu...

    Authors: Jürgen Schäfer, Matthias Griese, Ravishankar Chandrasekaran, Sanjay H. Chotirmall and Dominik Hartl

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2018 18:79

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  25. Content type: Research article

    Bronchiectasis is a heterogeneous disease which affects quality of life. Measuring symptoms and quality of life has proved challenging and research is limited by extrapolation of questionnaires and treatments ...

    Authors: Emily K. Dudgeon, Megan Crichton and James D. Chalmers

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2018 18:81

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  26. Content type: Review

    Bronchiectasis is a disease associated with chronic progressive and irreversible dilatation of the bronchi and is characterised by chronic infection and associated inflammation. The prevalence of bronchiectasi...

    Authors: Ravishankar Chandrasekaran, Micheál Mac Aogáin, James D. Chalmers, Stuart J. Elborn and Sanjay H. Chotirmall

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2018 18:83

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  27. Content type: Research article

    Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infection is an increasing problem worldwide. The epidemiology of NTM in most Asian countries is unknown. This study investigated the epidemiology, and clinical profile of in...

    Authors: Albert Y. H. Lim, Sanjay H. Chotirmall, Eric T. K. Fok, Akash Verma, Partha P. De, Soon Keng Goh, Ser Hon Puah, Daryl E. L. Goh and John A. Abisheganaden

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2018 18:85

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  28. Content type: Research article

    Lung transplantation is a well-established treatment for end-stage non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis (BR), though information regarding outcomes of transplantation remains limited. Our results of lung transpl...

    Authors: Jodie Birch, Syba S. Sunny, Katy L. M. Hester, Gareth Parry, F. Kate Gould, John H. Dark, Stephen C. Clark, Gerard Meachery, James Lordan, Andrew J. Fisher, Paul A. Corris and Anthony De Soyza

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2018 18:82

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  29. Content type: Editorial

    Bronchiectasis has an increasing profile within respiratory medicine. This chronic and irreversible airways disease is common but suffers from a lack of evidenced based therapy for patients and, a lack of unde...

    Authors: Sanjay H. Chotirmall and James D. Chalmers

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2018 18:76

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  30. Content type: Research article

    In people with cystic fibrosis infection with NonTuberculous Mycobacteria is of increasing prevalence. Mycobacterium abscessus complex is of particular concern and has been associated with adverse clinical outcom...

    Authors: Adrien Tissot, Matthew F. Thomas, Paul A. Corris and Malcolm Brodlie

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2018 18:86

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  31. Content type: Case report

    Pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (PPFE) is a very rare interstitial lung disease (ILD) characterized by progressive fibrotic lesions of the visceral pleura and the sub-pleural parenchyma, affecting predominant...

    Authors: D. Hassoun, S. Dirou, P. P. Arrigoni, C. Durant, M. Hamidou, A. Néel and C. Agard

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2018 18:73

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  32. Content type: Research article

    The most common cause of death of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) has been reported to be the lung disease itself and mortality from IPF appears to be increasing. However, the causes of death...

    Authors: Miia Kärkkäinen, Hanna Nurmi, Hannu-Pekka Kettunen, Tuomas Selander, Minna Purokivi and Riitta Kaarteenaho

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2018 18:69

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  33. Content type: Research article

    The inherent risk of developing tuberculosis (TB) in HIV- infected individuals is further enhanced by hypovitaminosis D. Interventions that offset HIV-associated immune deterioration potentially arrest disease...

    Authors: Cuthbert Musarurwa, Lynn Sodai Zijenah, Doreen Zvipo Mhandire, Tsitsi Bandason, Kudakwashe Mhandire, Maria Mary Chipiti, Marshall Wesley Munjoma and Witmore Bayayi Mujaji

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2018 18:67

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  34. Content type: Research article

    Pirfenidone, a pleiotropic anti-fibrotic treatment, has been shown to slow down disease progression of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), a fatal and devastating lung disease. Rapamycin, an inhibitor of fibr...

    Authors: M. Molina-Molina, C. Machahua-Huamani, V. Vicens-Zygmunt, R. Llatjós, I. Escobar, E. Sala-Llinas, P. Luburich-Hernaiz, J. Dorca and A. Montes-Worboys

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2018 18:63

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  35. Content type: Research article

    Aspergillus fumigatus is frequently encountered in sputum samples of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), which traditionally has been interpreted as saprophytic airway colonization. However, this mere bystander r...

    Authors: Johannes Träger, Volker Otto Melichar, Renate Meyer, Manfred Rauh, Christian Bogdan and Jürgen Held

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2018 18:52

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  36. Content type: Research article

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a prognostic indicator of poor outcome in myositis. Although the pathogenesis of myositis-associated ILD is not well understood, neutrophils are thought to play a pivotal rol...

    Authors: Noriho Sakamoto, Hiroshi Ishimoto, Tomoyuki Kakugawa, Minoru Satoh, Tomoko Hasegawa, Shin Tanaka, Atsuko Hara, Shota Nakashima, Hirokazu Yura, Takuto Miyamura, Hanako Koyama, Towako Morita, Seiko Nakamichi, Yasushi Obase, Yuji Ishimatsu and Hiroshi Mukae

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2018 18:44

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  37. Content type: Research article

    Previous studies have suggested that antibodies against human leukocyte antigen (HLA) are associated with worse outcomes in lung transplantation. However, little is known about the factors associated with outc...

    Authors: Ji Eun Park, Chi Young Kim, Moo Suk Park, Joo Han Song, Young Sam Kim, Jin Gu Lee, Hyo Chae Paik and Song Yee Kim

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2018 18:45

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  38. Content type: Research article

    Aldosterone is a mineralocorticoid hormone critically involved in arterial blood pressure regulation. Although pharmacological aldosterone antagonism reduces mortality and morbidity among patients with severe ...

    Authors: Mario Boehm, Nadine Arnold, Adam Braithwaite, Josephine Pickworth, Changwu Lu, Tatyana Novoyatleva, David G. Kiely, Friedrich Grimminger, Hossein A. Ghofrani, Norbert Weissmann, Werner Seeger, Allan Lawrie, Ralph T. Schermuly and Baktybek Kojonazarov

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2018 18:41

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  39. Content type: Study protocol

    Exercise training is an integral component of evidence-based management programs for many chronic cardiac and respiratory conditions. Despite this, there are limited high-quality studies available on the signi...

    Authors: Norman R. Morris, Menaka Louis, Wendy Strugnell, Julie Harris, Aaron Lin, John Feenstra and Helen Seale

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2018 18:40

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  40. Content type: Case report

    Actinomycosis is a rare bacterial infection caused by Actinomyces. The symptom of actinomycosis is nonspecific and radiological images present as a slow-progressive mass lesion similarly to malignancies. Thus, it...

    Authors: Munemasa Nagao, Akihisa Fukuda, Takeshi Matsumura, Toshiyuki Kimura and Hiroshi Seno

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2018 18:39

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  41. Content type: Research article

    The prison situations are notorious for causing interruptions of tuberculosis (TB) treatment and occurrence of unfavorable outcomes. In Ethiopian prisons, though TB treatment programs exist, treatment outcome ...

    Authors: Kelemework Adane, Mark Spigt and Geert-Jan Dinant

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2018 18:37

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  42. Content type: Research article

    Infection with Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) results in a heterogeneous clinical course ranging from asymptomatic colonization of the airways to fulminant respiratory failure in patients with cystic fibrosis...

    Authors: Bryan A. Garcia, Jacque L. Carden, Dana L. Goodwin, Tim A. Smith, Amit Gaggar, Kevin Leon, Veena B. Antony, Steven M. Rowe and George M. Solomon

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2018 18:35

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  43. Content type: Study protocol

    Physical activity (PA) and exercise have become an accepted and valued component of cystic fibrosis (CF) care. Regular PA and exercise can positively impact pulmonary function, improve physical fitness, and en...

    Authors: Helge Hebestreit, Larry C. Lands, Nancy Alarie, Jonathan Schaeff, Chantal Karila, David M. Orenstein, Don S. Urquhart, Erik H. J. Hulzebos, Lothar Stein, Christian Schindler, Susi Kriemler and Thomas Radtke

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2018 18:31

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  44. Content type: Research article

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive and fatal fibrosing lung disease of unknown cause. The advent of anti-fibrotic medications known to slow disease progression has revolutionised IPF manageme...

    Authors: Helen E. Jo, Ian Glaspole, Yuben Moodley, Sally Chapman, Samantha Ellis, Nicole Goh, Peter Hopkins, Greg Keir, Annabelle Mahar, Wendy Cooper, Paul Reynolds, E. Haydn Walters, Christopher Zappala, Christopher Grainge, Heather Allan, Sacha Macansh…

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2018 18:19

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  45. Content type: Research article

    In individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF), colonization with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was reported to be associated with a deterioration of pulmonary disease as reflected by an accelerate...

    Authors: Alexander Kiefer, Christian Bogdan and Volker O. Melichar

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2018 18:20

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  46. Content type: Research article

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the most common comorbidities in community acquired pneumonia (CAP) patients. We aimed to investigate the characteristics and mortality risk factors of CO...

    Authors: Ruo-Xuan Dai, Qing-Hua Kong, Bei Mao, Wen Xu, Ru-Jia Tao, Xiao-Ru Wang, Qing-Yao Kong and Jin-Fu Xu

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2018 18:12

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