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  1. Content type: Study protocol

    Asthma is a difficult diagnosis to establish in preschool children. A few years ago, our group presented a prediction rule for young children at risk for asthma in general practice. Before this prediction rule...

    Authors: Karina E van Wonderen, Lonneke B van der Mark, Jacob Mohrs, Ronald B Geskus, Willem M van der Wal, Wim MC van Aalderen, Patrick JE Bindels and Gerben ter Riet

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2009 9:13

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  2. Content type: Research article

    Nonattendance for scheduled appointments disturbs the effective management of pediatric pulmonary clinics. We hypothesized that the reasons for non-attendance and the necessary solutions might be different in ...

    Authors: Aviv D Goldbart, Jacob Dreiher, Daniel A Vardy, Soliman Alkrinawi and Arnon D Cohen

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2009 9:12

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  3. Content type: Research article

    Recent studies have provided evidence for a link between leptin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) mediates the metabolic effects of growth hormone (GH). The GH axis ...

    Authors: Prokopis Kythreotis, Ageliki Kokkini, Stavrina Avgeropoulou, Argyro Hadjioannou, Efgenia Anastasakou, Antonis Rasidakis and Petros Bakakos

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2009 9:11

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  4. Content type: Research article

    Differences could exist in the likelihood of asthma attacks in patients treated with inhaled corticosteroid (ICS), long-acting beta-agonist (LABA), and montelukast (MON) (ICS/LABA/MON) and patients treated wit...

    Authors: Robert W Dal Negro, Luis Borderias, Qiaoyi Zhang, Tao Fan, Vasilisa Sazonov, Magda Guilera and Stephanie D Taylor

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2009 9:10

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  5. Content type: Research article

    Pleural effusions are classified into transudates and exudates. Various criteria have been used with Light's et al being the most accepted ones. Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) have been detected during pleural flui...

    Authors: Rozina Vavetsi, Stefanos Bonovas, Paraskevi Polizou, Chrysanthi Papanastasopoulou, Georgia Dougekou and Nikolaos M Sitaras

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2009 9:9

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  6. Content type: Research article

    This study is a cross sectional analysis, aiming to evaluate if atopy is as a risk factor for exercise induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) among Tunisian athletes.

    Authors: Ridha Sallaoui, Karim Chamari, Abbas Mossa, Zouhair Tabka, Moktar Chtara, Youssef Feki and Mohamed Amri

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2009 9:8

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  7. Content type: Research article

    The aim of this paper is to highlight emerging data on occupational attributable risk in asthma. Despite well documented outbreaks of disease and the recognition of numerous specific causal agents, occupationa...

    Authors: Kjell Torén and Paul D Blanc

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2009 9:7

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  8. Content type: Commentary

    The introduction and acceptance of a standard definition for exacerbations of COPD can be helpful in prompt diagnosis and management of these events. The latest GOLD executive committee recognised this necessi...

    Authors: Demosthenes Makris and Demosthenes Bouros

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2009 9:6

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  9. Content type: Research article

    Legionella species cause severe forms of pneumonia with high mortality and complication rates. Accurate clinical predictors to assess the likelihood of Legionella community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in patients pr...

    Authors: Rico Fiumefreddo, Roya Zaborsky, Jeannine Haeuptle, Mirjam Christ-Crain, Andrej Trampuz, Ingrid Steffen, Reno Frei, Beat Müller and Philipp Schuetz

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2009 9:4

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  10. Content type: Research article

    A large and unsuspected tuberculosis outbreak involving 18.7% of the total of the tuberculosis cases studied, was detected in a population-based molecular epidemiological study performed in Zaragoza (Spain) fr...

    Authors: Ana Isabel López-Calleja, Patricia Gavín, Ma Antonia Lezcano, Ma Asunción Vitoria, Ma José Iglesias, Joaquín Guimbao, Ma Ángeles Lázaro, Nalin Rastogi, Ma José Revillo, Carlos Martín and Sofia Samper

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2009 9:3

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  11. Content type: Research article

    The objective of this study was to analyze the clinical and management characteristics of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in men and women, to determine possible gender-associated differences betw...

    Authors: Pilar Carrasco-Garrido, Javier de Miguel-Díez, Javier Rejas-Gutierrez, Antonio Martín-Centeno, Elena Gobartt-Vázquez, Valentin Hernandez-Barrera, Angel Gil de Miguel and Rodrigo Jimenez-Garcia

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2009 9:2

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  12. Content type: Research article

    As more inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) devices become available, there may be pressure for health-care providers to switch patients with asthma to cheaper inhaler devices. Our objective was to evaluate impact on...

    Authors: Mike Thomas, David Price, Henry Chrystyn, Andrew Lloyd, Angela E Williams and Julie von Ziegenweidt

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2009 9:1

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  13. Content type: Research article

    Global Initiative Strategy for Asthma Management (GINA) is poorly applied in undeveloped and developing countries. The current study examined the effects of applying GINA guidelines on treatment efficacy in as...

    Authors: Mohammad H Boskabady, Fariba Rezaeitalab, Najmah Rahimi and Damon Dehnavi

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2008 8:26

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  14. Content type: Research article

    New animal models of chronic pulmonary hypertension in mice are needed. The injection of monocrotaline is an established model of pulmonary hypertension in rats. The aim of this study was to establish a murine...

    Authors: Rio Dumitrascu, Silke Koebrich, Eva Dony, Norbert Weissmann, Rajkumar Savai, Soni S Pullamsetti, Hossein A Ghofrani, Arun Samidurai, Horst Traupe, Werner Seeger, Friedrich Grimminger and Ralph T Schermuly

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2008 8:25

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  15. Content type: Research article

    Current data on incidence of interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) are sparse and concerns about an increasing trend have been raised. We examined incidence rates (IRs) of ILDs and changes in IRs between 1995 and ...

    Authors: Jette B Kornum, Steffen Christensen, Miriam Grijota, Lars Pedersen, Pia Wogelius, Annette Beiderbeck and Henrik Toft Sørensen

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2008 8:24

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  16. Content type: Research article

    The pathological diagnosis of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIP) by surgical lung biopsy is important for clinical decision-making. However, there is a need to use less invasive biomarkers to differentia...

    Authors: Tomoyuki Kakugawa, Shin-ichi Yokota, Hiroshi Mukae, Hiroshi Kubota, Noriho Sakamoto, Syunji Mizunoe, Yasuhiro Matsuoka, Jun-ichi Kadota, Nobuhiro Fujii, Kazuhiro Nagata and Shigeru Kohno

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2008 8:23

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  17. Content type: Research article

    There have been few reports regarding long time survival after lung cancer surgery. The influence of age and pulmonary function on long time survival is still not fully discovered. Some reports suggest that ho...

    Authors: Kjetil Roth, Tom Ivar Lund Nilsen, Elisabeth Hatlen, Karina Søvik Sørensen, Torstein Hole and Rune Haaverstad

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2008 8:22

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  18. Content type: Research article

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) and Nitric Oxide (NO) are crucial mediators for establishing pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH). We tested the hypothesis that their imbalance might also occur in COPD patients with PAH.

    Authors: Pierluigi Carratu, Cristina Scoditti, Mauro Maniscalco, Teresa Maria Seccia, Giuseppe Di Gioia, Felice Gadaleta, Rosa Angela Cardone, Silvano Dragonieri, Paola Pierucci, Antonio Spanevello and Onofrio Resta

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2008 8:20

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  19. Content type: Research article

    The 'hygiene hypothesis' suggests that early exposure to microbes can be protective against atopic disease. The intestinal microbial flora could operate as an important postnatal regulator of the Th1/Th2 balan...

    Authors: Carl Vael, Vera Nelen, Stijn L Verhulst, Herman Goossens and Kristine N Desager

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2008 8:19

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  20. Content type: Research article

    Severe post tracheostomy (PT) and post intubation (PI) tracheal stenosis is an uncommon clinical entity that often requires interventional bronchoscopy before surgery is considered. We present our experience w...

    Authors: Nikolaos Zias, Alexandra Chroneou, Maher K Tabba, Anne V Gonzalez, Anthony W Gray, Carla R Lamb, David R Riker and John F Beamis Jr

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2008 8:18

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  21. Content type: Research article

    We reported that roflumilast, a phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor, given orally at 5 mg/kg to mice prevented the development of emphysema in a chronic model of cigarette smoke exposure, while at 1 mg/kg was ineffe...

    Authors: Piero A Martorana, Benedetta Lunghi, Monica Lucattelli, Giovanna De Cunto, Rolf Beume and Giuseppe Lungarella

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2008 8:17

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  22. Content type: Research article

    Community-acquired (CAP) and nosocomial pneumonias contribute substantially to morbidity and hospital resource utilization. Hyponatremia, occurring in >1/4 of patients with CAP, is associated with greater dise...

    Authors: Marya D Zilberberg, Alex Exuzides, James Spalding, Aimee Foreman, Alison Graves Jones, Chris Colby and Andrew F Shorr

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2008 8:16

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  23. Content type: Research article

    Exposure to mustard gas frequently results in long-term respiratory complications. However the factors which drive the development and progression of these complications remain unclear. The Renin Angiotensin S...

    Authors: Ali Reza Hosseini-khalili, Julian Thompson, Anthony Kehoe, Nicholas S Hopkinson, A Khoshbaten, Mohammad Reza Soroush, Steve E Humphries, Hugh Montgomery and Mostafa Ghanei

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2008 8:15

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  24. Content type: Research article

    The association between bronchial obstruction severity and mortality in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is well established, but it is unknown whether disease-specific health status measures and m...

    Authors: Maria E Conte, Claudio Pedone, Francesco Forastiere, Vincenzo Bellia and Raffaele Antonelli-Incalzi

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2008 8:14

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  25. Content type: Research article

    Airway eosinophilia is considered a central event in the pathogenesis of asthma. The toxic components of eosinophils are thought to be important in inducing bronchial mucosal injury and dysfunction. Previous s...

    Authors: Letícia Lintomen, Gilberto Franchi, Alexandre Nowill, Antonio Condino-Neto, Gilberto de Nucci, Angelina Zanesco and Edson Antunes

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2008 8:13

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  26. Content type: Research article

    Neutrophil products like matrix metalloproteinases (MMP), involved in bacterial defence mechanisms, possibly induce lung damage and are elevated locally during hospital- acquired pneumonia (HAP). In HAP the vi...

    Authors: Bernhard Schaaf, Cornelia Liebau, Volkhard Kurowski, Daniel Droemann and Klaus Dalhoff

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2008 8:12

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  27. Content type: Technical advance

    There is increasing evidence that patients with low-risk community acquired pneumonia (CAP) can be effectively treated as outpatients. This study aimed to explore patients' experiences of having pneumonia and ...

    Authors: Deborah J Baldie, Vikki A Entwistle and Peter G Davey

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2008 8:11

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  28. Content type: Research article

    Several concepts of treatment in neonatal ARDS have been proposed in the last years. The present study compared the effects of open lung concept positive pressure ventilation (PPVOLC) with a conventional ventilat...

    Authors: Anne Hilgendorff, Ece Aslan, Thomas Schaible, Ludwig Gortner, Thorsten Baehner, Michael Ebsen, Jochen Kreuder, Clemens Ruppert, Andreas Guenther and Irwin Reiss

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2008 8:10

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  29. Content type: Research article

    Hypertonic saline (HTS) reduces the severity of lung injury in ischemia-reperfusion, endotoxin-induced and ventilation-induced lung injury. However, the potential for HTS to modulate the resolution of lung inj...

    Authors: Muiris T Kennedy, Brendan D Higgins, Joseph F Costello, William A Curtin and John G Laffey

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2008 8:9

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  30. Content type: Study protocol

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a significant health problem worldwide. This randomised controlled trial aims at testing a new approach that involves a registered nurse working in partnership w...

    Authors: Nicholas Zwar, Oshana Hermiz, Iqbal Hasan, Elizabeth Comino, Sandy Middleton, Sanjyot Vagholkar and Guy Marks

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2008 8:8

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  31. Content type: Research article

    The surfactant proteins B (SP-B) and C (SP-C) are important for the stability and function of the alveolar surfactant film. Their involvement and down-regulation in inflammatory processes has recently been pro...

    Authors: Oliver Tafel, Philipp Latzin, Karl Paul, Tobias Winter, Markus Woischnik and Matthias Griese

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2008 8:6

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  32. Content type: Research article

    The assessment of airway inflammation for the diagnosis of asthma or COPD is still uncommon in pneumology-specialized general practices. In this respect, the measurement of exhaled nitric oxide (NO), as a fast...

    Authors: Olaf Holz, Tanja Seiler, Andreas Karmeier, Jan Fraedrich, Helmut Leiner, Helgo Magnussen, Rudolf A Jörres and Lutz Welker

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2008 8:5

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  33. Content type: Research article

    Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) has become increasingly important as a routine procedure in daily clinical work. So far, it is generally accepted that an individualized exercise protocol with exercise ...

    Authors: Sven Gläser, Sven Lodziewski, Beate Koch, Christian F Opitz, Henry Völzke and Ralf Ewert

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2008 8:3

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  34. Content type: Research article

    The reported diagnostic yield from bronchoscopies in patients with lung cancer varies greatly. The optimal combination of sampling techniques has not been finally established.

    Authors: Kjetil Roth, Jon A Hardie, Alf H Andreassen, Friedemann Leh and Tomas ML Eagan

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2008 8:2

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  35. Content type: Research article

    As supra-physiological intake of corticosteroids is a well known risk factor for the development of adrenal insufficiency, we investigated the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis during a...

    Authors: Philipp Schuetz, Mirjam Christ-Crain, Ursula Schild, Erika Süess, Michael Facompre, Florent Baty, Charly Nusbaumer, Martin Brutsche and Beat Müller

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2008 8:1

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  36. Content type: Research article

    Alveolar volume measured according to the American Thoracic Society-European Respiratory Society (ATS-ERS) guidelines during the single breath diffusion test can be underestimated when there is maldistribution...

    Authors: Renato Prediletto, Edo Fornai, Giosuè Catapano and Cristina Carli

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2007 7:18

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  37. Content type: Research article

    The outcome of patients with bronchiectasis during and after their stay in the intensive care unit (ICU) has seldom been reported in the literature. Managing these patients in the ICU can be challenging becaus...

    Authors: Abdulaziz H Alzeer, Mohammed Masood, Syed Jani Basha and Shaffi A Shaik

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2007 7:17

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  38. Content type: Research article

    In the management of asthma, features of care important to patients may not be fully appreciated. This study quantifies the importance of different features of asthma management from the patient perspective. T...

    Authors: John Haughney, Monica Fletcher, Stephanie Wolfe, Julie Ratcliffe, Roger Brice and Martyn R Partridge

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2007 7:16

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  39. Content type: Software

    Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) has become an important modality for the evaluation and management of patients with a diverse array of medical problems. However, interpreting these tests is often diffi...

    Authors: Robert M Ross and David B Corry

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2007 7:15

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  40. Content type: Research article

    We previously reported that NKG2A, a key inhibitory ligand for HLA-E, is expressed on activated TH2 but not TH1 cells. Here we measured cytokine expression in human ex vivo TH2 cells upon activation with anti-CD3...

    Authors: Robert J Freishtat, Bahar Mojgani, Maryam Nazemzadeh, Kanneboyina Nagaraju and Eric P Hoffman

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2007 7:14

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  41. Content type: Research article

    There is a paucity of surrogate lung-specific biological markers that can be used to track disease progression and predict clinical outcomes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The principal aim o...

    Authors: Don D Sin, Rochelle Leung, Wen Q Gan and SF Paul Man

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2007 7:13

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  42. Content type: Research article

    Respiratory tract infections are common in intensive care units (ICU), with incidences reported from 10 to 65%, and case fatality rates over 20% in pneumonia. This study was designed to identify risk factors f...

    Authors: Teresa C Cardoso, Luís M Lopes and António H Carneiro

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2007 7:12

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  43. Content type: Research article

    Several strategies and devices have been designed to protect health care providers from acquiring transmissible respiratory diseases while providing care. In modulating the physical characteristics of the resp...

    Authors: Gustavo Zayas, Juan C Valle, Mauricio Alonso, Henry Alfaro, Daniel Vega, Gloria Bonilla, Miguel Reyes and Malcolm King

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2007 7:11

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  44. Content type: Study protocol

    Lung volume reduction surgery is effective at improving lung function, quality of life, and mortality in carefully selected individuals with advanced emphysema. Recently, less invasive bronchoscopic approaches...

    Authors: Charlie Strange, Felix JF Herth, Kevin L Kovitz, Geoffrey McLennan, Armin Ernst, Jonathan Goldin, Marc Noppen, Gerard J Criner and Frank C Sciurba

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2007 7:10

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  45. Content type: Study protocol

    Cycle training intensity for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is normally based on an incremental cycle test. Such tests are expensive and not readily available to clinicians. The six...

    Authors: Muhammad R Zainuldin, Danielle Knoke, Martin G Mackey, Nia Luxton and Jennifer A Alison

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2007 7:9

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