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  1. Lobular Capillary Hemangioma (LCH) is a benign tumour that is known to be hormone responsive and have a relatively high incidence during pregnancy, the most common site being the gingival surfaces. A tracheal ...

    Authors: Shivesh Prakash, Shailesh Bihari and Ubbo Wiersema
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2014 14:41
  2. Asthma and allergies are world-wide common chronic diseases among children and young people. Little information is available about the prevalence of these diseases in rural areas of Latin America. This study a...

    Authors: María Teresa Solis Soto, Armando Patiño, Dennis Nowak and Katja Radon
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2014 14:40
  3. Chronic airway diseases, like asthma or COPD, are characterized by excessive acetylcholine release and airway remodeling. The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term effect of muscarinic agonists on...

    Authors: Rodopi Stamatiou, Efrosini Paraskeva, Anna Vasilaki, Ilias Mylonis, Paschalis Adam Molyvdas, Konstantinos Gourgoulianis and Apostolia Hatziefthimiou
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2014 14:39
  4. Benefits of community-based whole-body vibration (WBV) as a mode of exercise training for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have not been investigated. The low skill demand of WBV may en...

    Authors: Trentham Furness, Corey Joseph, Geraldine Naughton, Liam Welsh and Christian Lorenzen
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2014 14:38
  5. Secondary pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (sPAP) is a very rare lung disorder comprising approximately 10% of cases of acquired PAP. Hematological disorders are the most common underlying conditions of sPAP, of...

    Authors: Haruyuki Ishii, John F Seymour, Ryushi Tazawa, Yoshikazu Inoue, Naoyuki Uchida, Aya Nishida, Yoshihito Kogure, Takeshi Saraya, Keisuke Tomii, Toshinori Takada, Yuko Itoh, Masayuki Hojo, Toshio Ichiwata, Hajime Goto and Koh Nakata
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2014 14:37
  6. Management of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) places a considerable burden on hospital resources. REACH was a retrospective, observational study (NCT01293435) involving adults ≥18 years old hospitalized wit...

    Authors: Helmut Ostermann, Javier Garau, Jesús Medina, Esther Pascual, Kyle McBride and Francesco Blasi
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2014 14:36
  7. Pneumonitis is a rare complication of bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) immunotherapy seen in patients with urothelial cancer following the repeated administration of BCG. However, no case of BCG-induced pleurisy...

    Authors: Makoto Tobiume, Tsutomu Shinohara, Takahira Kuno, Shinji Mukai, Keishi Naruse, Nobuo Hatakeyama and Fumitaka Ogushi
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2014 14:35
  8. Dynamic gas compression during forced expiration has an influence on conventional flow-volume spirometry results. The extent of gas compression in different pulmonary disorders remains obscure. Utilizing a flo...

    Authors: Päivi L Piirilä, Ulla Hodgson, Tomi Wuorimaa, Hans-Jürgen Smith and Anssi RA Sovijärvi
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2014 14:34
  9. Patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) risk lung collapse, severely altering the breath-to-breath respiratory mechanics. Model-based estimation of respiratory mechanics characterising patient...

    Authors: Erwin J van Drunen, Yeong Shiong Chiew, Christopher Pretty, Geoffrey M Shaw, Bernard Lambermont, Nathalie Janssen, J Geoffrey Chase and Thomas Desaive
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2014 14:33
  10. Cigarette smoke induces a pro-inflammatory response in airway epithelial cells but it is not clear which of the various chemicals contained within cigarette smoke (CS) should be regarded as predominantly respo...

    Authors: David M Comer, Joseph Stuart Elborn and Madeleine Ennis
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2014 14:32
  11. Air pollution has many effects on the health of both adults and children, but children’s vulnerability is unique. The aim of this review is to discuss the possible molecular mechanisms linking air pollution an...

    Authors: Susanna Esposito, Rossana Tenconi, Mara Lelii, Valentina Preti, Erica Nazzari, Silvia Consolo and Maria Francesca Patria
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2014 14:31
  12. The aim of this study was to test whether repeatable biomarkers collected from serum, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and sputum of healthy smokers and smokers with COPD would have a prognostic value with respect...

    Authors: Olaf Holz, Benjamin Waschki, Stefan Roepcke, Henrik Watz, Gereon Lauer, Cornelia Faulenbach and Jens M Hohlfeld
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2014 14:30
  13. Small airways are regarded as the elective anatomic site of obstruction in most chronic airway diseases. Expiratory computed tomography (CT) is increasingly used to assess obstruction at this level but there i...

    Authors: Sébastien Bommart, Grégory Marin, Arnaud Bourdin, Nicolas Molinari, François Klein, Maurice Hayot, Isabelle Vachier, Pascal Chanez, Jacques Mercier and Hélène Vernhet-Kovacsik
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2014 14:29
  14. Cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease begins in early life and is progressive with the major risk factor being an exaggerated inflammatory response. Currently, assessment of neutrophilic inflammation in early cyst...

    Authors: Emmanuelle Fantino, Catherine L Gangell, Dominik Hartl and Peter D Sly
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2014 14:28
  15. We investigated patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) to analyze patterns and identify determinants of healthcare use, according to the severity of airflow obstruction. We used retrospecti...

    Authors: Kyungsoo Chung, Kyungjoo Kim, Jiye Jung, Kyungwon Oh, Yeonmok Oh, Sekyu Kim, Jinhee Kim and Youngsam Kim
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2014 14:27
  16. Health-related and disease-specific quality of life (HRQoL) has been increasingly valued as relevant clinical parameter in cystic fibrosis (CF) clinical care and clinical trials. HRQoL measures should assess –...

    Authors: Helge Hebestreit, Kerstin Schmid, Stephanie Kieser, Sibylle Junge, Manfred Ballmann, Kristina Roth, Alexandra Hebestreit, Thomas Schenk, Christian Schindler, Hans-Georg Posselt and Susi Kriemler
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2014 14:26
  17. Many patients with pneumonia and lower respiratory tract infection that could be treated as outpatients according to their clinical severity score, are in fact admitted to hospital. We investigated whether, wi...

    Authors: Andrea M Collins, Odiri J Eneje, Carole A Hancock, Daniel G Wootton and Stephen B Gordon
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2014 14:25
  18. Little is known about iron deficiency (ID) and anemia in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). The purposes of this study were: (i) To study the prevalence and treatment of anemia and ID in patients ho...

    Authors: Donald S Silverberg, Ram Mor, Melanie Tia Weu, Doron Schwartz, Idit F Schwartz and Gil Chernin
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2014 14:24
  19. Expiratory flow limitation (EFL) during tidal breathing is common in patients with severe COPD, and a major determinant of dynamic hyperinflation and exercise limitation. EFL can be measured by the forced osci...

    Authors: Masashi Mikamo, Toshihiro Shirai, Kazutaka Mori, Yuichiro Shishido, Takefumi Akita, Satoru Morita, Kazuhiro Asada, Masato Fujii and Takafumi Suda
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2014 14:23
  20. Airways of lung cancer patients are often colonized by fungi. Some of these colonizing fungi, under particular conditions, produce cancerogenic mycotoxins. Given the recent interest in the infective origin of ...

    Authors: Giovanna E Carpagnano, Donato Lacedonia, Grazia Pia Palladino, Giuseppe Logrieco, Elisabetta Crisetti, Antonia Susca, Antonio Logrieco and Maria P Foschino-Barbaro
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2014 14:22
  21. Gastro esophageal reflux (GER) is common in cystic fibrosis (CF) and may contribute to lung disease. Approximately 50% of patients with cystic fibrosis are being treated with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs).

    Authors: Emily DiMango, Patricia Walker, Claire Keating, Maria Berdella, Newell Robinson, Elinor Langfelder-Schwind, Diane Levy and Xinhua Liu
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2014 14:21
  22. The editors of BMC Pulmonary Medicine would like to thank all our reviewers who have contributed to the journal in Volume 13 (2013).

    Authors: Catia Cornacchia
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2014 14:13
  23. Endotoxins stimulate T helper 1 cell maturation and send a negative signal to T helper 2 polarisation. This causes a decrease IgE levels and prevents atopy (Hygiene hypothesis). It is shown that this response ...

    Authors: Füsun Şahin, Pınar Yıldız, Ayşegül Kuskucu, Mert Ahmet Kuskucu, Nilgün Karaca and Kenan Midilli
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2014 14:20
  24. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) leads to chronic respiratory failure. Diaphragmatic dysfunction, a major driver of dyspnea and mortality, is associated with a shift of the burden of ventilation to extradia...

    Authors: Marjolaine Georges, Capucine Morélot-Panzini, Thomas Similowski and Jesus Gonzalez-Bermejo
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2014 14:17
  25. A higher slow vital capacity (VC) compared with forced vital capacity (FVC) indicates small airway collapse and air trapping. We hypothesized that a larger difference between VC and FVC (VC-FVC) would predict ...

    Authors: Wei Yuan, Xin He, Qiu-Fen Xu, Hao-Yan Wang and Richard Casaburi
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2014 14:16
  26. Appropriate sedation benefits patients by reducing the stress response, but it requires an appropriate method of assessment to adjust the dosage of sedatives. The aim of this study was to compare the differenc...

    Authors: Chien-Wei Hsu, Shu-Fen Sun, Kuo-An Chu, David Lin Lee and Kam-Fai Wong
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2014 14:15
  27. Recent studies suggest that coexistence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) might be independently related to a worse prognosis for lung cancer. However, because data on the substantial prevalence ...

    Authors: Naozumi Hashimoto, Asuka Matsuzaki, Yu Okada, Naoyuki Imai, Shingo Iwano, Kenji Wakai, Kazuyoshi Imaizumi, Kohei Yokoi and Yoshinori Hasegawa
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2014 14:14
  28. Low levels of physical activity are common in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and a sedentary lifestyle is associated with poor outcomes including increased mortality, frequent hosp...

    Authors: Carlos H Martinez, Marilyn L Moy, Huong Q Nguyen, Miriam Cohen, Reema Kadri, Pia Roman, Robert G Holleman, Hyungjin Myra Kim, David E Goodrich, Nicholas D Giardino and Caroline R Richardson
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2014 14:12
  29. It is well known that maternal smoking during pregnancy is very harmful to the fetus. Prenatal nicotine absorption, in particular, is associated with alterations in lung development and functions at birth and ...

    Authors: Anna M Lavezzi, Melissa F Corna, Graziella Alfonsi and Luigi Matturri
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2014 14:11
  30. Alterations in surfactant phospholipid compositions are a recognized feature of many acute and chronic lung diseases. Investigation of underlying mechanisms requires assessment of surfactant phospholipid molec...

    Authors: Ahilanandan Dushianthan, Victoria Goss, Rebecca Cusack, Michael PW Grocott and Anthony D Postle
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2014 14:10
  31. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic inflammatory disease mediated by an array of inflammatory cells and mediators, but above all, CD8+ T-lymphocytes, macrophages and neutrophils are impor...

    Authors: Neil C Barnes, Marina Saetta and Klaus F Rabe
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2014 14:9
  32. Pulmonary involvement is a common feature of MPA. Although alveolar hemorrhage is the most common pulmonary manifestation of MPA, a few recent studies have described instances of MPA patients with pulmonary fi...

    Authors: Hui Huang, Yan xun Wang, Chun guo Jiang, Jia Liu, Ji Li, Kai Xu and Zuo jun Xu
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2014 14:8
  33. Mortality after pneumonia in immunocompromised patients is higher than for immunocompetent patients. The use of non-invasive mechanical ventilation for patients with severe pneumonia may provide beneficial out...

    Authors: Christopher S Johnson, Christopher R Frei, Mark L Metersky, Antonio R Anzueto and Eric M Mortensen
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2014 14:7
  34. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has significant systemic effects that substantially impact quality of life and survival. The purpose of this study was to assess and compare peripheral muscle stren...

    Authors: Ebru Calik-Kutukcu, Sema Savci, Melda Saglam, Naciye Vardar-Yagli, Deniz Inal-Ince, Hulya Arikan, Zeynep Aribas, Ozge Ozer, Meral Bosnak-Guclu and Lutfi Coplu
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2014 14:6
  35. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive and fatal disease with no effective medical therapies. Recent research has focused on identifying the biological processes essential to the development and ...

    Authors: Sydney B Montesi, Susan K Mathai, Laura N Brenner, Irina A Gorshkova, Evgeny V Berdyshev, Andrew M Tager and Barry S Shea
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2014 14:5
  36. Two once-daily long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMAs) are currently available for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) – tiotropium and glycopyrronium. Previous studies have compar...

    Authors: Kenneth R Chapman, Kai-Michael Beeh, Jutta Beier, Eric D Bateman, Anthony D’Urzo, Robert Nutbrown, Michelle Henley, Hungta Chen, Tim Overend and Peter D’Andrea
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2014 14:4
  37. S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) serves as a reservoir for nitric oxide (NO) and thus is a key homeostatic regulator of airway smooth muscle tone and inflammation. Decreased levels of GSNO in the lungs of asthmatic...

    Authors: Joan P Blonder, Sarah C Mutka, Xicheng Sun, Jian Qiu, Lucia H Green, Navdeep K Mehra, Ramakrishna Boyanapalli, Michael Suniga, Kirsten Look, Chris Delany, Jane P Richards, Doug Looker, Charles Scoggin and Gary J Rosenthal
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2014 14:3
  38. Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality is high in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and arterial stiffness is a potentially modifiable risk factor with added predictive value beyond th...

    Authors: Surya P Bhatt, Adam G Cole, James Michael Wells, Hrudaya Nath, Jubal R Watts, John R Cockcroft and Mark T Dransfield
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2014 14:1
  39. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is hallmarked by inflammatory processes and a progressive decline of lung function. YKL-40 is a potential biomarker of inflammation and mortality in patients suffer...

    Authors: Dennis B Holmgaard, Lone H Mygind, Ingrid L Titlestad, Hanne Madsen, Svend Stenvang Pedersen, Julia S Johansen and Court Pedersen
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2013 13:77
  40. Cardiac surgery is frequently complicated by an acute vascular lung injury and this may be mediated, at least in part, by the (soluble) receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE).

    Authors: Pieter R Tuinman, Alexander D Cornet, Maria T Kuipers, Alexander P Vlaar, Marcus J Schultz, Albertus Beishuizen, AB Johan Groeneveld and Nicole P Juffermans
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2013 13:76
  41. So far, the accuracy of tidal volume (VT) and leak measures provided by the built-in software of commercial home ventilators has only been tested using bench linear models with fixed calibrated and continuous ...

    Authors: Ana Sogo, Jaume Montanyà, Eduard Monsó, Lluís Blanch, Xavier Pomares and Manel Lujàn
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2013 13:75
  42. Hemodynamic status and cardiac function are important factors for predicting pulmonary embolism (PE) prognosis. Although inflammation is considered a risk factor for deep vein thrombosis, the prognostic signif...

    Authors: Jun Yeon Jo, Mi Young Lee, Jin Wook Lee, Byung Hak Rho and Won-Il Choi
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2013 13:74
  43. There is limited information on the causes of death in asthma patients.

    Authors: Jose Gregorio Soto-Campos, Vicente Plaza, Joan B Soriano, Carlos Cabrera-López, Carlos Almonacid-Sánchez, Rosa Vazquez-Oliva, Jose Serrano, Aitor Ballaz-Quincoces, Alicia Padilla-Galo and Vanessa Santos
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2013 13:73
  44. Medications for respiratory disorders including asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are typically delivered to the lung by means of a handheld inhaler. Patient preference for and ability to...

    Authors: Henrik Svedsater, Peter Dale, Karl Garrill, Richard Walker and Mark W Woepse
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2013 13:72
  45. Ventilatory impairment is known to occur in patients with heart failure (HF). Alveolar volume (VA) is measured by the dilution of an inert gas during a single breath-hold maneuver. Such measurement is sensitive t...

    Authors: Massimo Miniati, Simonetta Monti, Matteo Bottai, Ivana Pavlickova, Claudio Passino, Michele Emdin and Roberta Poletti
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2013 13:69

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