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  1. Although anti-asthma medications are amongst those most frequently under or over prescribed it is generally accepted that prescriptions for such agents can be used as a proxy for disease prevalence. The aims o...

    Authors: Marina Bianchi, Antonio Clavenna, Marco Sequi,, Angela Bortolotti, Ida Fortino, Luca Merlino and Maurizio Bonati

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2011 11:48

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Recent studies find that a considerable number of patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) develop fibrous obstruction of the pulmonary veins. Such obstruction more commonly accompanies connective t...

    Authors: Yasuko Takeda, Yutaka Takeda, Koji Yamamoto, Shigehiro Tomimoto, Tomomitsu Tani, Hitomi Narita, Nobuyuki Ohte and Genjiro Kimura

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2011 11:47

    Content type: Research article

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  3. An increased incidence of pneumonia in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) under inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) therapy was noticed in previous studies. We performed a prospective study to...

    Authors: Shih-Lung Cheng, Hao-Chien Wang, Shih-Jung Cheng and Chong-Jen Yu

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2011 11:46

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Little is known of how mucociliary clearance (MCC) in children with cystic fibrosis (CF) and normal pulmonary function compares with healthy adults, or how an acute inhalation of 7% hypertonic saline (HS) aero...

    Authors: Beth L Laube, Gail Sharpless, Kathryn A Carson, Amber Kelly and Peter J Mogayzel Jr

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2011 11:45

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Inflammation, both local and systemic, is a hallmark of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Inflammatory mediators such as TNFα and GM-CSF are secreted by lung epithelium, alveolar macrophages and ot...

    Authors: Jeroen D Langereis, René C Schweizer, Jan-Willem J Lammers, Leo Koenderman and Laurien H Ulfman

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2011 11:44

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Although timely treatment of COPD exacerbations seems clinically important, nearly half of these exacerbations remain unreported and subsequently untreated. Recent studies have investigated incidence and impac...

    Authors: Jaap CA Trappenburg, David Schaap, Evelyn M Monninkhof, Jean Bourbeau, Gerdien H de Weert-van Oene, Theo JM Verheij, Jan-Willem J Lammers and Augustinus JP Schrijvers

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2011 11:43

    Content type: Research article

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  7. The COPD Assessment Test (CAT™) is a new short health status measure for routine use. New questionnaires require reference points so that users can understand the scores; descriptive scenarios are one way of d...

    Authors: Paul W Jones, Margaret Tabberer and Wen-Hung Chen

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2011 11:42

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Tachykinins substance P, neurokinin A and neurokinin B seem to account for asthma pathophysiology by mediating neurogenic inflammation and several aspects of lung mechanics. These neuropeptides act mainly by t...

    Authors: Renata Ramalho, Raquel Soares, Nuno Couto and André Moreira

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2011 11:41

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Although patients have more problems using metered dose inhalers, clinical comparisons suggest they provide similar control to dry powder inhalers. Using real-life situations this study was designed to evaluat...

    Authors: Veronika Müller, Gabriella Gálffy, Noemi Eszes, György Losonczy, Andrea Bizzi, Gabriele Nicolini, Henry Chrystyn and Lilla Tamási

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2011 11:40

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Neuropeptide S Receptor 1 (NPSR1, GPRA, GPR154) was first identified as an asthma candidate gene through positional cloning and has since been replicated as an asthma and allergy susceptibility gene in several in...

    Authors: Christina Orsmark Pietras, Johanna Vendelin, Francesca Anedda, Sara Bruce, Mikael Adner, Lilli Sundman, Ville Pulkkinen, Harri Alenius, Mauro D'Amato, Cilla Söderhäll and Juha Kere

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2011 11:39

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Acute bronchitis is one of the most prevalent respiratory infections in primary care, and in more than 90% of the cases antibiotics are prescribed, mainly when purulent expectoration is present. However, this ...

    Authors: Carl Llor, Ana Moragas, Carolina Bayona, Rosa Morros, Helena Pera, Josep M Cots, Yvonne Fernández, Marc Miravitlles and Albert Boada

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2011 11:38

    Content type: Study protocol

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  12. Little is known about the effect of smoking cessation on airway inflammation. Secretory Leukocyte Protease Inhibitor (SLPI), Clara Cell protein 16 (CC16), elafin and human defensin beta-2 (HBD-2) protect human...

    Authors: Izolde Bouloukaki, Ioanna G Tsiligianni, Maria Tsoumakidou, Ioanna Mitrouska, Emmanuel P Prokopakis, Irene Mavroudi, Nikolaos M Siafakas and Nikolaos Tzanakis

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2011 11:35

    Content type: Research article

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  13. The World Health Organization has estimated that by 2030, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease will be the third leading cause of death worldwide. Most knowledge of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is ba...

    Authors: Adolfo L Rubinstein, Vilma E Irazola, Lydia A Bazzano, Edgardo Sobrino, Matías Calandrelli, Fernando Lanas, Alison G Lee, Jose A Manfredi, Héctor Olivera, Jacqueline Ponzo, Pamela Seron and Jiang He

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2011 11:34

    Content type: Study protocol

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  14. Despite its widespread use in pulmonary fibrosis research, the bleomycin mouse model has not been thoroughly validated from a pulmonary functional standpoint using new technologies. Purpose of this study was t...

    Authors: Effrosyni D Manali, Charalampos Moschos, Christina Triantafillidou, Anastasia Kotanidou, Ioannis Psallidas, Sophia P Karabela, Charis Roussos, Spyridon Papiris, Apostolos Armaganidis, Georgios T Stathopoulos and Nikolaos A Maniatis

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2011 11:33

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Asthma is difficult to diagnose in children and at times misdiagnosis of an infection can occur. However, little is known about the magnitude and patterns of antibiotic consumption in children with asthma rela...

    Authors: Fawziah Marra, Carlo A Marra, Kathryn Richardson, Larry D Lynd and Mark J FitzGerald

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2011 11:32

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Indacaterol is a novel once-daily ultra long-acting β2-agonist for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It is known that β2-agonists, like other adrenergic compounds, can prolong the QT-interva...

    Authors: Sanjeev Khindri, Ronald Sabo, Stuart Harris, Ralph Woessner, Simon Jennings and Anton F Drollmann

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2011 11:31

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a life-threatening disease with poor prognosis. Encouraging efforts have been made to target the main vasoproliferative aspects of the disease. Promising emerging therapeutics ar...

    Authors: Jan K Hennigs, Gunhild Keller, Hans Jörg Baumann, Friedemann Honecker, Stefan Kluge, Carsten Bokemeyer, Tim H Brümmendorf and Hans Klose

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2011 11:30

    Content type: Case report

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  18. The role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in regulating gene expression is currently an area of intense interest. Relatively little is known, however, about the role of miRNAs in inflammatory and immunologically-driven d...

    Authors: Adam Collison, Cristan Herbert, Jessica S Siegle, Joerg Mattes, Paul S Foster and Rakesh K Kumar

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2011 11:29

    Content type: Research article

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  19. The inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) fluticasone propionate (fluticasone) and the long-acting β2-agonist (LABA) formoterol fumarate (formoterol) are being made available as a combination product (fluticasone/formoter...

    Authors: Anna Bodzenta-Lukaszyk, Andrzej Dymek, Kirsten McAulay and Heikki Mansikka

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2011 11:28

    Content type: Research article

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  20. The prevalence of physician-diagnosed-asthma has risen over the past three decades and misdiagnosis of asthma is potentially common. Objective: to determine whether a secondary-screening-program to establish a...

    Authors: Smita Pakhale, Amanda Sumner, Douglas Coyle, Katherine Vandemheen and Shawn Aaron

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2011 11:27

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection predisposes to tuberculosis (TB). We described incidence, risk factors and prognosis of TB in HIV-1 infected patients during pre (1995-1996), early (1997-1999), and...

    Authors: Gry A Taarnhøj, Frederik N Engsig, Pernille Ravn, Isik S Johansen, Carsten S Larsen, Birgit Røge, Aase B Andersen and Niels Obel

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2011 11:26

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Advances in the understanding and management of pulmonary arterial hypertension have enabled earlier diagnosis and improved prognosis. However, despite best available therapy, symptoms of exertional dyspnoea a...

    Authors: Louise Ganderton, Sue Jenkins, Kevin Gain, Robin Fowler, Peta Winship, Dianne Lunt and Eli Gabbay

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2011 11:25

    Content type: Study protocol

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  23. The prevalence of allergic diseases has increased over recent decades in affluent countries, but remains low in rural populations and some non-affluent countries. An explanation for these trends is that increa...

    Authors: Rafael V Veiga, Sergio S Cunha, Vitor CC Dattoli, Álvaro C Cruz, Phillip J Cooper, Laura C Rodrigues, Maurício L Barreto and Neuza M Alcantara-Neves

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2011 11:24

    Content type: Research article

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  24. KL-6 is a high-molecular-weight glycoprotein classified as a human MUC1 mucin. It was hypothesized that KL-6 could be detectable in the circulating blood and especially in airway secretions in lung diseases as...

    Authors: Nobuhisa Ishikawa, Witold Mazur, Tuula Toljamo, Katri Vuopala, Mikko Rönty, Yasushi Horimasu, Nobuoki Kohno and Vuokko L Kinnula

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2011 11:22

    Content type: Research article

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  25. To produce a conceptually equivalent Arabic version to the original Self-Administered Chronic Respiratory Disease Questionnaire with standardized dyspnea domain (CRQ-SAS) and to assess its reliability.

    Authors: Mohamed S Al Moamary and Hani M Tamim

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2011 11:21

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Patients with COPD have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Whilst pulmonary rehabilitation has proven benefit for exercise tolerance and quality of life, any effect on cardiovascular risk has not bee...

    Authors: Nichola S Gale, James M Duckers, Stephanie Enright, John R Cockcroft, Dennis J Shale and Charlotte E Bolton

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2011 11:20

    Content type: Research article

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  27. A significant number of young people start smoking at an age of 13-15, which means that serious smoking-evoked changes may have been occurred by their twenties. Surfactant proteins (SP) and matrix metalloprote...

    Authors: Helen Ilumets, Witold Mazur, Tuula Toljamo, Noora Louhelainen, Pentti Nieminen, Hideo Kobayashi, Nobuhisa Ishikawa and Vuokko L Kinnula

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2011 11:19

    Content type: Research article

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  28. The relationships between total serum IgE levels and gene expression patterns in peripheral blood CD4+ T cells (in all subjects and within each sex specifically) are not known.

    Authors: Gary M Hunninghake, Jen-hwa Chu, Sunita S Sharma, Michael H Cho, Blanca E Himes, Angela J Rogers, Amy Murphy, Vincent J Carey and Benjamin A Raby

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2011 11:17

    Content type: Research article

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  29. The immune modulating properties of statins may benefit smokers with asthma. We tested the hypothesis that short-term treatment with atorvastatin improves lung function or indices of asthma control in smokers ...

    Authors: Georgina Braganza, Rekha Chaudhuri, Charles McSharry, Christopher J Weir, Iona Donnelly, Lisa Jolly, Jane Lafferty, Suzanne M Lloyd, Mark Spears, Frances Mair and Neil C Thomson

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2011 11:16

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Direct smear examination with Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) staining for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) is cheap and easy to use, but its low sensitivity is a major drawback, particularly in HIV seropositi...

    Authors: Luciene C Scherer, Rosa D Sperhacke, Carla Jarczewski, Patrícia I Cafrune, Candice T Michelon, Rubia Rupenthal, Marta Osorio Ribeiro, Antonio Ruffino Netto, Maria LR Rossetti and Afrânio L Kritski

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2011 11:15

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Interleukin-9 (IL-9)-targeted therapies may offer a novel approach for treating asthmatics. Two randomized placebo-controlled studies were conducted to assess the safety profile and potential efficacy of multi...

    Authors: Joseph M Parker, Chad K Oh, Craig LaForce, S David Miller, David S Pearlman, Chenxiong Le, Gabriel J Robbie, Wendy I White, Barbara White and Nestor A Molfino

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2011 11:14

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remains a major public health problem that affects the quality of life of patients, however smoking cessation may emeliorate the functional effects of COPD and alte...

    Authors: George Papadopoulos, Constantine I Vardavas, Maria Limperi, Apostolos Linardis, George Georgoudis and Panagiotis Behrakis

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2011 11:13

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Endotoxins are ubiquitously present in the environment and constitute a significant component of ambient air. These substances have been shown to modulate the allergic response, however a consensus has yet to ...

    Authors: Sudha Natarajan, Jiyoun Kim, Jacqueline Bouchard, William Cruikshank and Daniel G Remick

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2011 11:12

    Content type: Research article

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  34. In mechanically ventilated preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), exogenous surfactant application has been demonstrated both to decrease DNA-synthesis but also and paradoxically to increase...

    Authors: Andreas Wemhöner, Paul Jennings, Thomas Haller, Mario Rüdiger and Georg Simbruner

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2011 11:11

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Progressive airway inflammation and susceptibility to the airway colonisation and infection are characteristic for the pathophysiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Antimicrobial peptides (A...

    Authors: Ellen Andresen, Christoph Lange, Daniela Strodthoff, Torsten Goldmann, Nicole Fischer, Hany Sahly, Detlev Branscheid and Holger Heine

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2011 11:10

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Patients with COPD on long term oxygen therapy frequently do not adhere to their prescription, and they frequently do not use their ambulatory oxygen systems as intended. Reasons for this lack of adherence are...

    Authors: Elizabeth Arnold, Anne Bruton, Maggie Donovan-Hall, Angela Fenwick, Bridget Dibb and Elizabeth Walker

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2011 11:9

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Bronchial thermoplasty (BT) is a bronchoscopic procedure that improves asthma control by reducing excess airway smooth muscle. Treated patients have been followed out to 5 years to evaluate long-term safety of...

    Authors: Neil C Thomson, Adalberto S Rubin, Robert M Niven, Paul A Corris, Hans Christian Siersted, Ronald Olivenstein, Ian D Pavord, David McCormack, Michel Laviolette, Narinder S Shargill and Gerard Cox

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2011 11:8

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Therapeutic adherence of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is poor. It is therefore necessary to determine the magnitude of non-adherence to develop strategies to correct this behaviou...

    Authors: Pilar Barnestein-Fonseca, José Leiva-Fernández, Francisca Vidal-España, Antonio García-Ruiz, Daniel Prados-Torres and Francisca Leiva-Fernández

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2011 11:6

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Adherence with tobramycin inhalation solution (TIS) during routine cystic fibrosis (CF) care may differ from recommended guidelines and affect health care utilization.

    Authors: Becky A Briesacher, Alexandra L Quittner, Lisa Saiman, Patricia Sacco, Hassan Fouayzi and Lynne M Quittell

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2011 11:5

    Content type: Research article

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  40. A key strategy in improving care for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the provision of pulmonary rehabilitation programmes. Pulmonary rehabilitation programmes have been successful i...

    Authors: Kathy Murphy, Dympna Casey, Declan Devane, Adeline Cooney, Bernard McCarthy, Lorraine Mee, Martina Nichulain, Andrew W Murphy, John Newell and Eamon O' Shea

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2011 11:4

    Content type: Study protocol

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  41. Chemical irritation of airway mucosa elicits a variety of reflex responses such as coughing, apnea, and laryngeal closure. Inhaled irritants can activate either chemosensitive free nerve endings, laryngeal tas...

    Authors: Marco Tizzano, Mirko Cristofoletti, Andrea Sbarbati and Thomas E Finger

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2011 11:3

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Since the first outbreak of a respiratory illness caused by H1N1 virus in Mexico, several reports have described the need of intensive care or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) assistance in young and...

    Authors: Giovanni Cianchi, Manuela Bonizzoli, Andrea Pasquini, Massimo Bonacchi, Giovanni Zagli, Marco Ciapetti, Guido Sani, Stefano Batacchi, Simona Biondi, Pasquale Bernardo, Chiara Lazzeri, Valtere Giovannini, Alberta Azzi, Rosanna Abbate, Gianfranco Gensini and Adriano Peris

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2011 11:2

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Airway Bypass is a catheter-based, bronchoscopic procedure in which new passageways are created that bypass the collapsed airways, enabling trapped air to exit the lungs. The Exhale Airway Stents for Emphysema...

    Authors: Pallav L Shah, Dirk-Jan Slebos, Paulo FG Cardoso, Edward J Cetti, Gerhard W Sybrecht and Joel D Cooper

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2011 11:1

    Content type: Study protocol

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  44. Smoking is the major etiologic factor in COPD, yet the exact underlying pathogenetic mechanisms have not been elucidated. Since a few years, there is mounting evidence that a specific immune response, partly p...

    Authors: Corry-Anke Brandsma, Wim Timens, Marie Geerlings, Henrike Jekel, Dirkje S Postma, Machteld N Hylkema and Huib AM Kerstjens

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2010 10:64

    Content type: Research article

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  45. Breathlessness is a debilitating and distressing symptom in a wide variety of diseases and still a difficult symptom to manage. An integrative review of systematic reviews of non-pharmacological and pharmacolo...

    Authors: Chris D Bailey, Richard Wagland, Rasha Dabbour, Ann Caress, Jaclyn Smith and Alex Molassiotis

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2010 10:63

    Content type: Research article

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