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  1. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a complicated multi-factor, multi-gene disease. Here, we aimed to assess the association of genetic polymorphisms in LINC01414/ LINC00824 and interactions with COPD...

    Authors: Xiaoman Zhou, Yunjun Zhang, Yutian Zhang, Quanni Li, Mei Lin, Yixiu Yang, Yufei Xie and Yipeng Ding

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:213

    Content type: Research

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  2. Pseudomonas fluorescens (P. fluorescens) has been detected in respiratory samples from patients. However, no previous reports have been published about these P. fluorescens cultures from lung tissues.

    Authors: Xiao Liu, Lei Xiang, Yunhong Yin, Hao Li, Dedong Ma and Yiqing Qu

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:212

    Content type: Case report

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  3. As a typical “united airway” disease, asthma-chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) overlap has recently drawn more attention. Bronchiectasis is a heterogeneous disease related to a variety of diseases. Whether bronchie...

    Authors: Haiyan Sheng, Xiujuan Yao, Xiangdong Wang, Yuhong Wang, Xiaofang Liu and Luo Zhang

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:211

    Content type: Research

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  4. In adults with primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP), contralateral recurrence occurs in about 25–28% when there are asymptomatic blebs. How to treat contralateral recurrence of PSP in pediatric populations r...

    Authors: Chieh-Ni Kao, Shah-Hwa Chou, Ming-Ju Tsai, Po-Chih Chang and Yu-Wei Liu

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:210

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Clinical practice guidelines and re-imbursement schedules vary in the recommended timing of FDG-PET/CT in the diagnostic evaluation of suspected or confirmed lung cancer. The aim was to estimate the probabilit...

    Authors: Anne Johnson, Richard Norman, Francesco Piccolo and David Manners

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:209

    Content type: Research

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  6. Molecular targeted therapy for non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) is restricted due to resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). This study evaluated the effec...

    Authors: Ge-Ping Qu, Min Shi, Dan Wang, Jiong-He Wu, Peng Wang, Mei-Liang Gong and Zhi-Jian Zhang

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:208

    Content type: Research

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  7. The leprosy-tuberculosis (TB) co-infection is rarely reported in recent times. However, this dual comorbidity is associated with high mortality and major morbidity. Unrecognised leprosy-TB co-infection may pre...

    Authors: Josiah T. Masuka, Zamambo Mkhize, Somasundram Pillay and Anisa Mosam

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:207

    Content type: Case report

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  8. Tuberculosis remains a serious public health concern globally. The enormous social, economic, and health impacts of the diseases are attributed to the lack of updated data on the prevalence, geospatial distrib...

    Authors: Ketema Tafess, Teresa Kisi Beyen, Sisay Girma, Asnakech Girma and Gilman Siu

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:206

    Content type: Research

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  9. To assess mortality rate (MR) and standardized mortality rate (SMR) of rheumatoid arthritis-related interstitial lung disease (RA-ILD) patients and to evaluate the role of radiographic patterns in mortality.

    Authors: Maria A. Nieto, Maria J. Rodriguez-Nieto, Olga Sanchez-Pernaute, Fredeswinda Romero-Bueno, Leticia Leon, Cristina Vadillo, Dalifer D. Freites-Nuñez, Juan A. Jover, Jose L. Álvarez-Sala and Lydia Abasolo

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:205

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Patients with connective tissue disease, such as dermatomyositis (DM), and positive anti-TIF1γ self-antibodies are commonly diagnosed with malignant tumors as a comorbidity. The relationship between anti-TIF1γ...

    Authors: Jiao-jiao Xie, Bin Li, Rui Xu, Xian-zhi Du and Jin-zhi He

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:204

    Content type: Case report

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  11. Invasive and non-invasive mechanical ventilation (MV) have been combined as sequential MV in the treatment of respiratory failure. However, the effectiveness remains unclear. Here, we performed a randomized co...

    Authors: Nai-Min Kang, Nan Zhang, Bao-Jian Luo, En-Dong Wu, Jian-Quan Shi, Liang Li and Li Jiang

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:203

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Mechanical power (MP) of artificial ventilation, the energy transferred to the respiratory system, is a chief determinant of adequate oxygenation and decarboxylation. Calculated MP, the product of applied airw...

    Authors: Alessandro Ghiani, Joanna Paderewska, Swenja Walcher and Claus Neurohr

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:202

    Content type: Research

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  13. Sepsis is a complicated disease with systemic inflammation or organ dysfunction, and it is the leading cause of acute lung injury (ALI). Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have played important roles in the pathog...

    Authors: Bing Wang, Qi Sun, Wen Ye, Lianghai Li and Ping Jin

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:200

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Glypican 3 (GPC3) is a heparin sulphate proteoglycan whose expression is associated with several malignancies. However, its expression in non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) is limited and ambiguous. This st...

    Authors: Jing Ning, Shenyi Jiang, Xiaoxi Li, Yang Wang, Xuhong Deng, Zhiqiang Zhang, Lijie He, Daqing Wang and Youhong Jiang

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:199

    Content type: Research

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    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:381

  15. Patients undergoing bronchoscopy in spontaneous breathing are prone to hypoxaemia and hypercapnia. Sedation, airway obstruction, and lung diseases impair respiration and gas exchange. The restitution of normal...

    Authors: Daniel Strohleit, Thomas Galetin, Nils Kosse, Alberto Lopez-Pastorini and Erich Stoelben

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:198

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is a disease characterized by arteriovenous malformations in the skin and mucous membranes. We enrolled a large pedigree comprising 32 living members, and screened f...

    Authors: Yu Xu, Yong-Biao Zhang, Li-Jun Liang, Jia-Li Tian, Jin-Ming Lin, Pan-Pan Wang, Rong-Hui Li, Ming-Liang Gu and Zhan-Cheng Gao

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:197

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is an important diagnosis in critical care. VAP research is complicated by the lack of agreed diagnostic criteria and reference standard test criteria. Our aim was to revi...

    Authors: Basem Al-Omari, Peter McMeekin, A. Joy Allen, Ahsan R. Akram, Sara Graziadio, Jana Suklan, William S. Jones, B. Clare Lendrem, Amanda Winter, Milo Cullinan, Joanne Gray, Kevin Dhaliwal, Timothy S. Walsh and Thomas H. Craven

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:196

    Content type: Research article

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  18. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Taotao Liu, Qinyu Zhao and Bin Du

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:194

    Content type: Correction

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    The original article was published in BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:160

  19. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Tang-Hsiu Huang, Chin-Wei Kuo, Chian-Wei Chen, Yau-Lin Tseng, Chao-Liang Wu and Sheng-Hsiang Lin

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:193

    Content type: Correction

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    The original article was published in BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:165

  20. The overweight/obese population (evaluated by a body mass index, BMI) represents a global health problem and contributes to the development of various chronic diseases. In this epidemiological study we evaluat...

    Authors: D. Nugmanova, Y. Feshchenko, L. Iashyna, M. Polianska, K. Malynovska, I. Stafeyeva, J. Makarova and A. Vasylyev

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:192

    Content type: Research article

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  21. The echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like-4 anaplastic lymphoma kinase (EML4-ALK) fusion gene was identified in a subset of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. They responded positively to AL...

    Authors: Ying Li, Yongwen Li, Hongbing Zhang, Ruifeng Shi, Zihe Zhang, Hongyu Liu and Jun Chen

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:190

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Different from current cognition, our study demonstrated that adrenergic receptors agonist phenylephrine significantly relaxed isolated pulmonary artery but constricted pulmonary veins. Through comparing diffe...

    Authors: Li-mei Liao, Li Zhou, Chen-ran Wang, Jian-ying Hu, Yao-jun Lu and Shaoqiang Huang

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:189

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) is a degenerative interstitial lung disease with both a poor prognosis and quality of life once the diagnosis is made. In the last decade many features of the disease have b...

    Authors: Donato Lacedonia, Giulia Scioscia, Piera Soccio, Massimo Conese, Lucia Catucci, Grazia P. Palladino, Filomena Simone, Carla M. I. Quarato, Sante Di Gioia, Roberto Rana, Francesco Sollitto and Maria P. Foschino-Barbaro

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:188

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Previous studies suggest that transient receptor potential (TRP) channels and neurogenic inflammation may be involved in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF)-related high cough sensitivity, although the details...

    Authors: Mengyue Guan, Sun Ying and Yuguang Wang

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:187

    Content type: Research

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  25. Acute exacerbation (AE) of interstitial pneumonia (IP) is the most fatal complication after lung resection for lung cancer. To improve the prognosis of lung cancer with IP, the risk factors of AE of IP after l...

    Authors: Atsushi Kagimoto, Yasuhiro Tsutani, Kei Kushitani, Takahiro Kambara, Takahiro Mimae, Yoshihiro Miyata, Yukio Takeshima and Morihito Okada

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:186

    Content type: Research

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  26. It is not well-known if diagnosing and treating sleep breathing disorders among individuals with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) improves health outcomes. We evaluated the association between receipt of la...

    Authors: Nicholas T. Vozoris, Andrew S. Wilton, Peter C. Austin, Tetyana Kendzerska, Clodagh M. Ryan and Andrea S. Gershon

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:185

    Content type: Research

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  27. Current interstitial lung disease (ILD) diagnostic guidelines assess criteria across clinical, radiologic and pathologic domains. Significant interobserver variation in histopathologic evaluation has previousl...

    Authors: Robert Camp, Maxwell L. Smith, Brandon T. Larsen, Anja C. Roden, Carol Farver, Andre L. Moreira, Richard Attanoos, Raghavendra Pillappa, Irene Sansano, Alexandre Todorovic Fabro and Robert J. Homer

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:184

    Content type: Research

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  28. Heterogeneity in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) has led to many statistically negative clinical trials. Etiology is considered an important source of pathogenesis heterogeneity in ARDS but previous...

    Authors: Sheng-Yuan Ruan, Chun-Ta Huang, Ying-Chun Chien, Chun-Kai Huang, Jung-Yien Chien, Lu-Cheng Kuo, Ping-Hung Kuo, Shih-Chi Ku and Huey-Dong Wu

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:183

    Content type: Research

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  29. Pneumothorax is one complication of transbronchial biopsy (TBB) using endobronchial ultrasonography with a guide sheath (EBUS-GS-TBB). We sought to clarify the risk factors for pneumothorax after EBUS-GS-TBB u...

    Authors: Yusuke Gotoh, Teppei Yamaguchi, Hiroshi Yatsuya, Aki Ikeda, Takuya Okamura, Yosuke Sakakibara, Takuma Ina, Yuri Maeda, Mariko Hirochi, Hisashi Kako, Yasuhiro Goto, Sumito Isogai, Naoki Yamamoto, Masashi Kondo and Kazuyoshi Imaizumi

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:181

    Content type: Research

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  30. Although depression is a common comorbidity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the role of sex remains unexplored. We evaluated sex differences of risk factors of depressive symptoms in adults wi...

    Authors: Ji Soo Choi, Se Hyun Kwak, Nak-Hoon Son, Jae Won Oh, San Lee and Eun Hye Lee

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:180

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Worldwide, pneumonia is the third leading cause of death in under 5 years children. Ethiopia is ranked 4th out of 15 countries having the highest burdens of the death rate among under-five children due to pneu...

    Authors: Muluken Genetu Chanie, Mequannent Sharew Melaku, Melaku Yalew, Mastewal Arefaynie, Gedamnesh Bitew, Erkihun Tadesse Amsalu, Bereket Kefale, Amare Muche, Zinabu Fentaw, Reta Dewau, Bezawit Adane, Yitayish Damtie, Wolde Melese Ayele, Gojjam Eshetie Ewunetie and Metadel Adane

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:179

    Content type: Research

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  32. The excess adiposity, even in the absence of diseases, is responsible for a decline in pulmonary function, which is considered a predictor of mortality and a risk factor for diseases in several epidemiological...

    Authors: Caren Ishikawa, Marco Antonio Barbieri, Heloisa Bettiol, Gabriel Bazo, Alexandre A. Ferraro and Elcio Oliveira Vianna

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:178

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Tuberculous pleural effusion (TPE) patients usually have elevated D-dimer levels. The diagnostic performance of D-dimer in predicting pulmonary embolism (PE) in the TPE population is unclear. This study aimed ...

    Authors: Xiaoming Li, Yajing Qin, Wenjing Ye, Xi Chen, Dezhi Sun, Xuejun Guo and Wen Gu

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:177

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) often requires controlled ventilation, yielding high mechanical power and possibly further injury. Veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO) can be us...

    Authors: Malou Janssen, J. Han. J. Meeder, Leonard Seghers and Corstiaan A. den Uil

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:176

    Content type: Case report

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  35. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an important risk factor for postoperative complications and mortality. To determine the effects of perioperative combination therapy, using a long-acting muscar...

    Authors: Yoko Azuma, Atsushi Sano, Takashi Sakai, Satoshi Koezuka, Hajime Otsuka, Naobumi Tochigi, Kazutoshi Isobe, Susumu Sakamoto, Yujiro Takai and Akira Iyoda

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:174

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and the development of life-threatening COVID-19 are believed to disproportionately affect certain at-risk populations. However, it is not...

    Authors: Hannah R. Mathew, May Y. Choi, Michael D. Parkins and Marvin J. Fritzler

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:173

    Content type: Research article

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  37. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of osimertinib (OSI) versus afatinib (AFA) in patients with T790M-positive, non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and multiple central nervous system (CNS) me...

    Authors: Yang Yang, Qilong Liu, Lei Cao, Wei Sun, Xiaowei Gu, Bin Liu, Na Xiao, Fei Teng, Xiaoli Li, Meiji Chen, Weiguang Yu, Huanyi Lin and Guixing Xu

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:172

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Life-threatening hemoptysis presents an immediate diagnostic and therapeutic challenge, especially during the perinatal period.

    Authors: Yujun Li, Yuyao Wang, Zhike Liang, Chuzhi Pan, Xiaomei Huang, Zexun Mo, Guodong Chen, Dongliang Zhu, Ziwen Zhao and Shuquan Wei

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:171

    Content type: Case report

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  39. Despite the severe symptoms experienced by dying COPD patients, specialized palliative care (SPC) services focus mainly on cancer patients. We aimed to study the access to SPC that COPD and lung cancer (LC) pa...

    Authors: Peter Strang, Per Fürst, Christel Hedman, Jenny Bergqvist, Helena Adlitzer and Torbjörn Schultz

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:170

    Content type: Research

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  40. Oroscomucoid 3 (ORMDL3) has been linked to susceptibility of childhood asthma and respiratory viral infection. Polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) is a synthetic analog of viral double-stranded RNA, a t...

    Authors: Gemma Laura, Yi Liu, Kieran Fernandes, Saffron A. G. Willis-Owen, Kazuhiro Ito, William O. Cookson, Miriam F. Moffatt and Youming Zhang

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:167

    Content type: Research

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  41. Lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) is known to be one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths globally. In recent decades, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been indicated to exert pivotal regulating function...

    Authors: Honggang Kang, Dan Ma, Jing Zhang, Jun Zhao and Mengxiang Yang

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:166

    Content type: Research

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  42. Nintedanib is effective for treating idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), but some patients may exhibit a suboptimal response and develop on-treatment acute exacerbation (AE-IPF), hepatic injury, or mortality....

    Authors: Tang-Hsiu Huang, Chin-Wei Kuo, Chian-Wei Chen, Yau-Lin Tseng, Chao-Liang Wu and Sheng-Hsiang Lin

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:165

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:193

  43. ID1 is associated with resistance to the first generation of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the effect of ID1 expression on osimertinib resistance i...

    Authors: Kejun Liu, Xianwen Chen, Ligang Wu, Shiyuan Chen, Nianxin Fang, Limin Cai and Jun Jia

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:163

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

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