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  1. The Influenza A H1N1 virus can be transmitted via direct, indirect, and airborne route to non-infected subjects when an infected patient coughs, which expels a number of different sized droplets to the surroun...

    Authors: Gustavo Zayas, Ming C Chiang, Eric Wong, Fred MacDonald, Carlos F Lange, Ambikaipakan Senthilselvan and Malcolm King
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2012 12:11
  2. Tobacco smoking is an important public health concern worldwide leading to both chronic disease and early death. In Latin America, smoking prevalence is estimated at approximately 30% and prior studies suggest...

    Authors: Paul Logan Weygandt, Elisa Vidal-Cardenas, Robert H Gilman, Erika Avila-Tang, Lilia Cabrera and William Checkley
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2012 12:9
  3. Spirometry is regarded as the gold standard for the diagnosis of COPD, yet the condition is widely underdiagnosed. Therefore, additional screening methods that are easy to perform and to interpret are needed. ...

    Authors: Katrin Morenz, Heike Biller, Frank Wolfram, Steffen Leonhadt, Dirk Rüter, Thomas Glaab, Stefan Uhlig and Jens M Hohlfeld
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2012 12:8
  4. The aim of our study was to investigate the predictive value of the biomarkers interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 10 (IL-10) and lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) compared with clinical CRB and CRB-65 se...

    Authors: Katrin Zobel, Peter Martus, Mathias W Pletz, Santiago Ewig, Michael Prediger, Tobias Welte and Frank Bühling
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2012 12:6
  5. The tissue factor (TF)-dependent extrinsic pathway has been suggested to be a central mechanism by which the coagulation cascade is locally activated in the lungs of patients with acute lung injury and acute r...

    Authors: Peter E Morris, Jay S Steingrub, Bee Y Huang, Shamay Tang, Patrick M Liu, Peter R Rhode and Hing C Wong
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2012 12:5
  6. No population study has explored the population distribution of adult asthma in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The objective is to estimate asthma prevalence in general population in UAE.

    Authors: Bassam H Mahboub, Suleiman Al-Hammadi, Mohamed Rafique, Nabil Sulaiman, Ruby Pawankar, Abdulla I Al Redha and Atul C Mehta
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2012 12:4
  7. In cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, it has been suggested that systemic inflammation may be an important risk factor for poor health outcomes. The relationship of plasma inflammatory biomarkers to lung function ...

    Authors: David A Ngan, Pearce G Wilcox, May Aldaabil, Yuexin Li, Jonathon A Leipsic, Don D Sin and SF Paul Man
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2012 12:3
  8. Detection of risk factors for an air embolism in the left atrium, left ventricle, or systemic circulation (systemic air embolism, SAE) during a percutaneous core needle biopsy (PCNB) of the thorax.

    Authors: Martin C Freund, Johannes Petersen, Katharina C Goder, Tillmann Bunse, Franz Wiedermann and Bernhard Glodny
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2012 12:2
  9. The poor recognition and related underdiagnosis of COPD contributes to an underestimation of mortality in subjects with COPD. Data derived from population studies can advance our understanding of the true burd...

    Authors: Anne Lindberg, Lars-Gunnar Larsson, Hana Muellerova, Eva Rönmark and Bo Lundbäck
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2012 12:1
  10. The purpose of this analysis was to compare health care costs and utilization among COPD patients who had long-acting beta-2 agonist (LABA) OR long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA); LABA AND LAMA; or LABA, LAM...

    Authors: Chris M Kozma, Andrew L Paris, Craig A Plauschinat, Terra Slaton and John I Mackowiak
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2011 11:61
  11. The dose-dependent anti-inflammatory effects of a recent fixed combination of extrafine beclomethasone dipropionate/formoterol (BDP/F) were investigated using non-invasive markers of inflammation, exhaled nitr...

    Authors: Brian J O'Connor, Sara Collarini, Gianluigi Poli, Caterina Brindicci, Monica Spinola, Daniela Acerbi, Peter J Barnes and Brian Leaker
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2011 11:60
  12. Little is known concerning risk factors for herpes zoster in the general population. We hypothesised that inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are a risk factor for herpes zoster especially among users of inhibitors ...

    Authors: Pierre Ernst, Sophie Dell'Aniello, Yann Mikaeloff and Samy Suissa
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2011 11:59
  13. Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) can increase exercise tolerance, reduce exercise induced desaturation and improve the outcome of pulmonary rehabilitation in patients with chronic respiratory disease. It is not ...

    Authors: Fran Dyer, Lizzie Flude, Farid Bazari, Caroline Jolley, Catherine Englebretsen, Dilys Lai, Michael I Polkey and Nicholas S Hopkinson
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2011 11:58
  14. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a respiratory disease characterized by the collapse of the extrathoracic airway and has important social implications related to accidents and cardiovascular risk. The main obj...

    Authors: Raquel P Hirata, Isabella C Aguiar, Sergio R Nacif, Lilian C Giannasi, Fernando SS Leitão Filho, Israel R Santos, Salvatore Romano, Newton S Faria Jr, Paula N Nonaka, Luciana MM Sampaio, Claudia S Oliveira, Paulo TC Carvalho, Geraldo Lorenzi-Filho, Alberto Braghiroli, Adriana Salvaggio, Giuseppe Insalaco…
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2011 11:57
  15. The majority of patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) in functional classes II and III are currently being treated with non-parenteral therapies, including endothelin receptor antagon...

    Authors: Lars Knudsen, Alexander Schurawlew, Nils Nickel, Henning Tiede, Hossein A Ghofrani, Heinrike Wilkens, Ralf Ewert, Michael Halank, Hans Klose, Carlos Bäzner, Jürgen Behr and Marius M Hoeper
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2011 11:56
  16. End-stage lung disease (ESLD) is a frequent cause of death. What are the differences in the supports needed by caregivers of individuals with ESLD at end of life versus other life-limiting diagnoses?

    Authors: David C Currow, Morag Farquhar, Alicia M Ward, Gregory B Crawford and Amy P Abernethy
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2011 11:55
  17. Coffee processing causes organic dust exposure which may lead to development of respiratory symptoms. Previous studies have mainly focused on workers involved in roasting coffee in importing countries. This st...

    Authors: Gloria Sakwari, Magne Bråtveit, Simon HD Mamuya and Bente E Moen
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2011 11:54
  18. Despite the availability of effective therapies, asthma remains a source of significant morbidity and use of health care resources. The central research question of the ACCURATE trial is whether maximal doses ...

    Authors: Persijn J Honkoop, Rik JB Loymans, Evelien H Termeer, Jiska B Snoeck-Stroband, Moira J Bakker, Willem JJ Assendelft, Peter J Sterk, Gerben ter Riet, Tjard RJ Schermer and Jacob K Sont
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2011 11:53
  19. This study evaluated the efficacy and safety of the long-acting β2-agonist formoterol in patients with moderate-to-severe COPD.

    Authors: Miron A Bogdan, Hisamichi Aizawa, Yoshinosuke Fukuchi, Michiaki Mishima, Masaharu Nishimura and Masakazu Ichinose
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2011 11:51
  20. There are only a few follow-up studies of respiratory function among cement workers. The main aims of this study were to measure total dust exposure, to examine chronic respiratory symptoms and changes in lung...

    Authors: Zeyede K Zeleke, Bente E Moen and Magne Bråtveit
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2011 11:50
  21. Hospital readmission for acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD) occurs in up to 30% of patients, leading to excess morbidity and poor survival. Physiological risk factors predict readmission, but the impact of mo...

    Authors: Peter A Coventry, Isla Gemmell and Christopher J Todd
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2011 11:49
  22. Although anti-asthma medications are amongst those most frequently under or over prescribed it is generally accepted that prescriptions for such agents can be used as a proxy for disease prevalence. The aims o...

    Authors: Marina Bianchi, Antonio Clavenna, Marco Sequi,, Angela Bortolotti, Ida Fortino, Luca Merlino and Maurizio Bonati
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2011 11:48
  23. Recent studies find that a considerable number of patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) develop fibrous obstruction of the pulmonary veins. Such obstruction more commonly accompanies connective t...

    Authors: Yasuko Takeda, Yutaka Takeda, Koji Yamamoto, Shigehiro Tomimoto, Tomomitsu Tani, Hitomi Narita, Nobuyuki Ohte and Genjiro Kimura
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2011 11:47
  24. An increased incidence of pneumonia in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) under inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) therapy was noticed in previous studies. We performed a prospective study to...

    Authors: Shih-Lung Cheng, Hao-Chien Wang, Shih-Jung Cheng and Chong-Jen Yu
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2011 11:46
  25. Little is known of how mucociliary clearance (MCC) in children with cystic fibrosis (CF) and normal pulmonary function compares with healthy adults, or how an acute inhalation of 7% hypertonic saline (HS) aero...

    Authors: Beth L Laube, Gail Sharpless, Kathryn A Carson, Amber Kelly and Peter J Mogayzel Jr
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2011 11:45
  26. Inflammation, both local and systemic, is a hallmark of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Inflammatory mediators such as TNFα and GM-CSF are secreted by lung epithelium, alveolar macrophages and ot...

    Authors: Jeroen D Langereis, René C Schweizer, Jan-Willem J Lammers, Leo Koenderman and Laurien H Ulfman
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2011 11:44
  27. Although timely treatment of COPD exacerbations seems clinically important, nearly half of these exacerbations remain unreported and subsequently untreated. Recent studies have investigated incidence and impac...

    Authors: Jaap CA Trappenburg, David Schaap, Evelyn M Monninkhof, Jean Bourbeau, Gerdien H de Weert-van Oene, Theo JM Verheij, Jan-Willem J Lammers and Augustinus JP Schrijvers
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2011 11:43
  28. The COPD Assessment Test (CAT™) is a new short health status measure for routine use. New questionnaires require reference points so that users can understand the scores; descriptive scenarios are one way of d...

    Authors: Paul W Jones, Margaret Tabberer and Wen-Hung Chen
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2011 11:42
  29. Tachykinins substance P, neurokinin A and neurokinin B seem to account for asthma pathophysiology by mediating neurogenic inflammation and several aspects of lung mechanics. These neuropeptides act mainly by t...

    Authors: Renata Ramalho, Raquel Soares, Nuno Couto and André Moreira
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2011 11:41
  30. Although patients have more problems using metered dose inhalers, clinical comparisons suggest they provide similar control to dry powder inhalers. Using real-life situations this study was designed to evaluat...

    Authors: Veronika Müller, Gabriella Gálffy, Noemi Eszes, György Losonczy, Andrea Bizzi, Gabriele Nicolini, Henry Chrystyn and Lilla Tamási
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2011 11:40
  31. Neuropeptide S Receptor 1 (NPSR1, GPRA, GPR154) was first identified as an asthma candidate gene through positional cloning and has since been replicated as an asthma and allergy susceptibility gene in several in...

    Authors: Christina Orsmark Pietras, Johanna Vendelin, Francesca Anedda, Sara Bruce, Mikael Adner, Lilli Sundman, Ville Pulkkinen, Harri Alenius, Mauro D'Amato, Cilla Söderhäll and Juha Kere
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2011 11:39
  32. Acute bronchitis is one of the most prevalent respiratory infections in primary care, and in more than 90% of the cases antibiotics are prescribed, mainly when purulent expectoration is present. However, this ...

    Authors: Carl Llor, Ana Moragas, Carolina Bayona, Rosa Morros, Helena Pera, Josep M Cots, Yvonne Fernández, Marc Miravitlles and Albert Boada
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2011 11:38
  33. Little is known about the effect of smoking cessation on airway inflammation. Secretory Leukocyte Protease Inhibitor (SLPI), Clara Cell protein 16 (CC16), elafin and human defensin beta-2 (HBD-2) protect human...

    Authors: Izolde Bouloukaki, Ioanna G Tsiligianni, Maria Tsoumakidou, Ioanna Mitrouska, Emmanuel P Prokopakis, Irene Mavroudi, Nikolaos M Siafakas and Nikolaos Tzanakis
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2011 11:35
  34. The World Health Organization has estimated that by 2030, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease will be the third leading cause of death worldwide. Most knowledge of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is ba...

    Authors: Adolfo L Rubinstein, Vilma E Irazola, Lydia A Bazzano, Edgardo Sobrino, Matías Calandrelli, Fernando Lanas, Alison G Lee, Jose A Manfredi, Héctor Olivera, Jacqueline Ponzo, Pamela Seron and Jiang He
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2011 11:34
  35. Despite its widespread use in pulmonary fibrosis research, the bleomycin mouse model has not been thoroughly validated from a pulmonary functional standpoint using new technologies. Purpose of this study was t...

    Authors: Effrosyni D Manali, Charalampos Moschos, Christina Triantafillidou, Anastasia Kotanidou, Ioannis Psallidas, Sophia P Karabela, Charis Roussos, Spyridon Papiris, Apostolos Armaganidis, Georgios T Stathopoulos and Nikolaos A Maniatis
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2011 11:33
  36. Asthma is difficult to diagnose in children and at times misdiagnosis of an infection can occur. However, little is known about the magnitude and patterns of antibiotic consumption in children with asthma rela...

    Authors: Fawziah Marra, Carlo A Marra, Kathryn Richardson, Larry D Lynd and Mark J FitzGerald
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2011 11:32
  37. Indacaterol is a novel once-daily ultra long-acting β2-agonist for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It is known that β2-agonists, like other adrenergic compounds, can prolong the QT-interva...

    Authors: Sanjeev Khindri, Ronald Sabo, Stuart Harris, Ralph Woessner, Simon Jennings and Anton F Drollmann
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2011 11:31
  38. Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a life-threatening disease with poor prognosis. Encouraging efforts have been made to target the main vasoproliferative aspects of the disease. Promising emerging therapeutics ar...

    Authors: Jan K Hennigs, Gunhild Keller, Hans Jörg Baumann, Friedemann Honecker, Stefan Kluge, Carsten Bokemeyer, Tim H Brümmendorf and Hans Klose
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2011 11:30
  39. The role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in regulating gene expression is currently an area of intense interest. Relatively little is known, however, about the role of miRNAs in inflammatory and immunologically-driven d...

    Authors: Adam Collison, Cristan Herbert, Jessica S Siegle, Joerg Mattes, Paul S Foster and Rakesh K Kumar
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2011 11:29
  40. The inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) fluticasone propionate (fluticasone) and the long-acting β2-agonist (LABA) formoterol fumarate (formoterol) are being made available as a combination product (fluticasone/formoter...

    Authors: Anna Bodzenta-Lukaszyk, Andrzej Dymek, Kirsten McAulay and Heikki Mansikka
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2011 11:28
  41. The prevalence of physician-diagnosed-asthma has risen over the past three decades and misdiagnosis of asthma is potentially common. Objective: to determine whether a secondary-screening-program to establish a...

    Authors: Smita Pakhale, Amanda Sumner, Douglas Coyle, Katherine Vandemheen and Shawn Aaron
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2011 11:27
  42. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection predisposes to tuberculosis (TB). We described incidence, risk factors and prognosis of TB in HIV-1 infected patients during pre (1995-1996), early (1997-1999), and...

    Authors: Gry A Taarnhøj, Frederik N Engsig, Pernille Ravn, Isik S Johansen, Carsten S Larsen, Birgit Røge, Aase B Andersen and Niels Obel
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2011 11:26
  43. Advances in the understanding and management of pulmonary arterial hypertension have enabled earlier diagnosis and improved prognosis. However, despite best available therapy, symptoms of exertional dyspnoea a...

    Authors: Louise Ganderton, Sue Jenkins, Kevin Gain, Robin Fowler, Peta Winship, Dianne Lunt and Eli Gabbay
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2011 11:25
  44. The prevalence of allergic diseases has increased over recent decades in affluent countries, but remains low in rural populations and some non-affluent countries. An explanation for these trends is that increa...

    Authors: Rafael V Veiga, Sergio S Cunha, Vitor CC Dattoli, Álvaro C Cruz, Phillip J Cooper, Laura C Rodrigues, Maurício L Barreto and Neuza M Alcantara-Neves
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2011 11:24
  45. KL-6 is a high-molecular-weight glycoprotein classified as a human MUC1 mucin. It was hypothesized that KL-6 could be detectable in the circulating blood and especially in airway secretions in lung diseases as...

    Authors: Nobuhisa Ishikawa, Witold Mazur, Tuula Toljamo, Katri Vuopala, Mikko Rönty, Yasushi Horimasu, Nobuoki Kohno and Vuokko L Kinnula
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2011 11:22

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