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  1. We previously reported that NKG2A, a key inhibitory ligand for HLA-E, is expressed on activated TH2 but not TH1 cells. Here we measured cytokine expression in human ex vivo TH2 cells upon activation with anti-CD3...

    Authors: Robert J Freishtat, Bahar Mojgani, Maryam Nazemzadeh, Kanneboyina Nagaraju and Eric P Hoffman

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2007 7:14

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  2. There is a paucity of surrogate lung-specific biological markers that can be used to track disease progression and predict clinical outcomes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The principal aim o...

    Authors: Don D Sin, Rochelle Leung, Wen Q Gan and SF Paul Man

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2007 7:13

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Respiratory tract infections are common in intensive care units (ICU), with incidences reported from 10 to 65%, and case fatality rates over 20% in pneumonia. This study was designed to identify risk factors f...

    Authors: Teresa C Cardoso, Luís M Lopes and António H Carneiro

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2007 7:12

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Several strategies and devices have been designed to protect health care providers from acquiring transmissible respiratory diseases while providing care. In modulating the physical characteristics of the resp...

    Authors: Gustavo Zayas, Juan C Valle, Mauricio Alonso, Henry Alfaro, Daniel Vega, Gloria Bonilla, Miguel Reyes and Malcolm King

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2007 7:11

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Lung volume reduction surgery is effective at improving lung function, quality of life, and mortality in carefully selected individuals with advanced emphysema. Recently, less invasive bronchoscopic approaches...

    Authors: Charlie Strange, Felix JF Herth, Kevin L Kovitz, Geoffrey McLennan, Armin Ernst, Jonathan Goldin, Marc Noppen, Gerard J Criner and Frank C Sciurba

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2007 7:10

    Content type: Study protocol

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  6. Cycle training intensity for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is normally based on an incremental cycle test. Such tests are expensive and not readily available to clinicians. The six...

    Authors: Muhammad R Zainuldin, Danielle Knoke, Martin G Mackey, Nia Luxton and Jennifer A Alison

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2007 7:9

    Content type: Study protocol

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  7. Clinical trials show that asthma can be controlled in the majority of patients, but poorly controlled asthma still imposes a considerable burden. The level of asthma control achieved reflects the behaviour of ...

    Authors: Rob Horne, David Price, Jen Cleland, Rui Costa, Donna Covey, Kevin Gruffydd-Jones, John Haughney, Svein Hoegh Henrichsen, Alan Kaplan, Arnulf Langhammer, Anders Østrem, Mike Thomas, Thys van der Molen, J Christian Virchow and Siân Williams

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2007 7:8

    Content type: Debate

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  8. Pulmonary rehabilitation programs have been shown to increase functional exercise capacity and quality of life in COPD patients. However, following the completion of pulmonary rehabilitation the benefits begin...

    Authors: Lissa M Spencer, Jennifer A Alison and Zoe J McKeough

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2007 7:7

    Content type: Study protocol

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  9. Surfactant proteins (SP) are important for the innate host defence and essential for a physiological lung function. Several linkage and association studies have investigated the genes coding for different surf...

    Authors: Beena Puthothu, Johannes Forster, Jessica Heinze, Andrea Heinzmann and Marcus Krueger

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2007 7:6

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Endothelin-1 (EDN1) has been involved in the development of airway obstruction and inflammation in asthma. Several polymorphisms have been identified among the genes encoding for preproET1, an inactive precurs...

    Authors: Camille Taillé, Armelle Guénégou, Abdelhamid Almolki, Marie Piperaud, Bénédicte Leynaert, Sandrine Vuillaumier, Françoise Neukirch, Jorge Boczkowski, Michel Aubier, Joëlle Benessiano and Bruno Crestani

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2007 7:5

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Despite effective treatments, asthma outcomes remain suboptimal. Interest exists in complementary therapies, particularly in herbal remedies for asthma treatment, currently with inconclusive evidence of effica...

    Authors: Michael Thomas, Jane Sheran, Natalie Smith, Sofia Fonseca and Amanda J Lee

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2007 7:4

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Benchmarking is the comparison of a process to the work or results of others. We conducted a national benchmarking exercise to determine how UK pulmonologists manage common clinical scenarios in diffuse parenc...

    Authors: Patricia Macedo, Robina K Coker and Martyn R Partridge

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2007 7:3

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Current systemic therapy for nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary infection is limited by poor clinical response rates, drug toxicities and side effects. The addition of aerosolized amikacin to standard oral...

    Authors: Kala K Davis, Peter N Kao, Susan S Jacobs and Stephen J Ruoss

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2007 7:2

    Content type: Case report

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  14. Individuals with severe Z α1-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency have a considerably increased risk of developing chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD). It has been hypothesized that compensatory increases in level...

    Authors: Camilla Hollander, Ulla Westin, Anders Wallmark, Eeva Piitulainen, Tomas Sveger and Sabina M Janciauskiene

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2007 7:1

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Severe acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AE-COPD) is a common reason for emergency room (ER) visit about which little has been documented from India.

    Authors: Alladi Mohan, Raya Premanand, Lebaka Narayana Reddy, Mangu H Rao, Surendra K Sharma, Ranjit Kamity and Srinivas Bollineni

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2006 6:27

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Sarcoidosis is rarely associated with a distinct disease. One disease infrequently associated with sarcoidosis is psoriasis.

    Authors: Melita Nikolopoulou, Stamatis Katsenos, Kostas Psathakis, Efstathios Rallis, Dimitrios Sampaziotis, Panagiotis Panagou, Kostas Tsintiris and Demosthenes Bouros

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2006 6:26

    Content type: Case report

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  17. Allergic rhinitis (AR) and asthma are inflammatory conditions of the airways that often occur concomitantly. This global survey was undertaken to understand patient perspectives regarding symptoms, treatments,...

    Authors: Erkka Valovirta and Ruby Pawankar

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2006 6(Suppl 1):S3

    Content type: Review

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    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 6 Supplement 1

  18. An understanding of the needs and behaviors of asthma patients is important in developing an asthma-related healthcare policy. The primary goal of the present review was to assess patient perspectives on key i...

    Authors: Stephen T Holgate, David Price and Erkka Valovirta

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2006 6(Suppl 1):S2

    Content type: Review

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    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 6 Supplement 1

    The Erratum to this article has been published in Primary Care Respiratory Journal 1998 6:pcrj199815

  19. Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a chronic respiratory disease for which there is little psycho-social research and no qualitative studies of individuals living with the condition. A questionnaire-based sur...

    Authors: Simon Whalley and IC McManus

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2006 6:25

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Asthma and allergic diseases are becoming increasingly frequent in children in urban centres of Latin America although the prevalence of allergic disease is still low in rural areas. Understanding better why t...

    Authors: Philip J Cooper, Martha E Chico, Maritza G Vaca, Alejandro Rodriguez, Neuza M Alcântara-Neves, Bernd Genser, Lain Pontes de Carvalho, Renato T Stein, Alvaro A Cruz, Laura C Rodrigues and Mauricio L Barreto

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2006 6:24

    Content type: Study protocol

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  21. Several studies investigated the association of anemia with health related quality of life (HRQL) in patients with chronic disease. However, there is little evidence regarding the association of anemia with HR...

    Authors: Gokul Krishnan, Brydon J Grant, Paola C Muti, Archana Mishra, Heather M Ochs-Balcom, Jo L Freudenheim, Maurizio Trevisan and Holger J Schünemann

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2006 6:23

    Content type: Research article

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  22. To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the integrated Practical Approach to Lung Health in South Africa (PALSA) guideline in identifying patients requiring bacteriological screening for tuberculosis (TB), and ...

    Authors: René G English, Max O Bachmann, Eric D Bateman, Merrick F Zwarenstein, Lara R Fairall, Angeni Bheekie, Bosielo P Majara, Carl Lombard, Robert Scherpbier and Salah Eddine Ottomani

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2006 6:22

    Content type: Research article

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  23. A design concept of low-cost, simple, fully mechanical model of a mechanically ventilated, passively breathing lung is developed. An example model is built to simulate a patient under mechanical ventilation wi...

    Authors: J Geoffrey Chase, Toshinori Yuta, Kerry J Mulligan, Geoffrey M Shaw and Beverley Horn

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2006 6:21

    Content type: Technical advance

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  24. In ventilated newborns the use of multiple breath washout (MBW) techniques for measuring both lung volume and ventilation inhomogeneity (VI) is hampered by the comparatively high dead space fraction. We studie...

    Authors: G Schmalisch, H Proquitté, CC Roehr and RR Wauer

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2006 6:20

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Anemic syndrome is a frequent problem in intensive care units. The most probable etiology is the suppression of the erythropoietin response due to the direct effects of cytokines, as well as frequent blood sam...

    Authors: David Yepes, Bladimir Gil, Olga Hernandez, Rodrigo Murillo, Marco Gonzalez and Juan Pablo Velasquez

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2006 6:18

    Content type: Study protocol

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  26. The inhalation of normal or hypertonic saline during sputum induction (SI) may act as an indirect bronchoconstrictive stimulus leading to dyspnea and lung function deterioration. Our aim was to assess dyspnea ...

    Authors: Demosthenes Makris, Nikolaos Tzanakis, Joanna Moschandreas and Nikolaos M Siafakas

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2006 6:17

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Detecting serum antibody against inhaled antigens is an important diagnostic adjunct for hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP). We sought to validate a quantitative fluorimetric assay testing serum from bird fanci...

    Authors: Charles McSharry, George M Dye, Tengku Ismail, Kenneth Anderson, Elizabeth M Spiers and Gavin Boyd

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2006 6:16

    Content type: Research article

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  28. The prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases has increased in industrialised countries, and it is known that rates vary according whether the area is urban or rural and to socio-economic status. Surveys cond...

    Authors: Mauricio L Barreto, Sergio S Cunha, Neuza Alcântara-Neves, Lain P Carvalho, Álvaro A Cruz, Renato T Stein, Bernd Genser, Philip J Cooper and Laura C Rodrigues

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2006 6:15

    Content type: Study protocol

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  29. Different lung function equipment and different respiratory manoeuvres may produce different Peak Expiratory Flow (PEF) results. Although the PEF is the most common lung function test, there have been few stud...

    Authors: Thomas Bongers and B Ronan O'Driscoll

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2006 6:14

    Content type: Research article

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  30. This study examined the attitudes and actions of 3415 physician-recruited adults aged ≥ 16 years with asthma in eleven countries who were prescribed regular maintenance therapy with inhaled corticosteroids or ...

    Authors: Martyn R Partridge, Thys van der Molen, Sven-Erik Myrseth and William W Busse

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2006 6:13

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Although personal cigarette smoking is the most important cause and modulator of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure could influence the course of the disease. Despite...

    Authors: Mark D Eisner, John Balmes, Edward H Yelin, Patricia P Katz, S Katherine Hammond, Neal Benowitz and Paul D Blanc

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2006 6:12

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Although both smoking and respiratory complaints are very common, tools to improve diagnostic accuracy are scarce in primary care. This study aimed to reveal what inflammatory patterns prevail in clinically es...

    Authors: Niels H Chavannes, Juanita HJ Vernooy, Tjard RJ Schermer, Jan A Jacobs, Mieke A Dentener, Chris van Weel, Onno CP van Schayck and Emiel FM Wouters

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2006 6:11

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Although it is recognised that smoking is a major risk factor for subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and is associated with respiratory symptoms, there is less agreement concerning the relatio...

    Authors: Peter Frank, Julie Morris, Michelle Hazell, Mary Linehan and Timothy Frank

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2006 6:10

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia, a complex chronic lung disease in premature children in which oxidative stress and surfactant deficiency play a crucial role, is characterized by arrested alveolar and vascular deve...

    Authors: Simone AJ ter Horst, Margot Fijlstra, Sujata Sengupta, Frans J Walther and Gerry TM Wagenaar

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2006 6:8

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Symptomatic respiratory tract involvement is not common in Crohn's disease. Upper-airway obstruction has been reported before in Crohn's disease and usually responds well to steroid treatment.

    Authors: Maria Plataki, Eleni Tzortzaki, Irene Lambiri, Elpida Giannikaki, Armin Ernst and Nikolaos M Siafakas

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2006 6:7

    Content type: Case report

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  36. Smoking is known to cause chronic inflammatory changes in the bronchi and to contribute to airway hyper-reactivity, such as in bronchial asthma. To study the effect of smoking on the endothelin system in rat a...

    Authors: Bengt W Granström, Cang-Bao Xu, Elisabeth Nilsson, Petter Vikman and Lars Edvinsson

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2006 6:6

    Content type: Research article

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  37. A quantitative understanding of airway sizes and proportions and a reference point for comparisons are important to a pediatric bronchoscopist. The aims of this study were to measure large airway areas, and de...

    Authors: Ian B Masters, Robert S Ware, Paul V Zimmerman, Brian Lovell, Richard Wootton, Paul V Francis and Anne B Chang

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2006 6:5

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Clearance of inhaled technetium-labeled diethylenetriamine pentaacetate (99mTc-DTPA) is a marker of epithelial damage and an index of lung epithelial permeability. The aim of this study was to investigate the rol...

    Authors: Katerina M Antoniou, Katerina Malagari, Nikolaos Tzanakis, Kostas Perisinakis, Emmanouil K Symvoulakis, Nikolaos Karkavitsas, Nikolaos M Siafakas and Demosthenes Bouros

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2006 6:4

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Systemic inflammation is associated with various complications in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease including weight loss, cachexia, osteoporosis, cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Inhaled corticosteroid...

    Authors: Don D Sin, SF Paul Man, Darcy D Marciniuk, Gordon Ford, Mark FitzGerald, Eric Wong, Ernest York, Rajesh R Mainra, Warren Ramesh, Lyle S Melenka, Eric Wilde, Robert L Cowie, Dave Williams and Roxanne Rousseau

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2006 6:3

    Content type: Study protocol

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  40. Reduced forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) has been linked to non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, it is unclear whether all or only certain histological subtypes of NSCLC are associated with r...

    Authors: Samir Malhotra, Stephen Lam, SF Paul Man, Wen Q Gan and Don D Sin

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2006 6:2

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Hemoptysis is a significant clinical presentation in respiratory medicine. Often a life threatening emergency, it mandates prompt assessment and intervention. Various investigations and management protocols ar...

    Authors: Omer Ashraf

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2006 6:1

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  42. Hepatocyte and keratinocyte growth factors are key growth factors in the process of alveolar repair. We hypothesized that excessive alveolar destruction observed in lung emphysema involves impaired expression ...

    Authors: Marcel Bonay, Anne Boutten, Véronique Leçon-Malas, Joëlle Marchal, Paul Soler, Michel Fournier, Guy Leseche, Monique Dehoux and Bruno Crestani

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2005 5:13

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Recent studies suggest that angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors may have beneficial effects for patients at risk for some types of infections. We examined the effect of prior outpatient use of ACE i...

    Authors: Eric M Mortensen, Marcos I Restrepo, Antonio Anzueto and Jacqueline Pugh

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2005 5:12

    Content type: Research article

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