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Table 4 Associations between groups without (EI-) and with eosinophilic inflammation (EI+) and constitutional, behavioural characteristics and markers of airway responsiveness and inflammation (percentage in column (n)) (N = 341).

From: Associations of airway inflammation and responsiveness markers in non asthmatic subjects at start of apprenticeship

  Group EI-
(N = 302)
Group EI+
(N = 39)
p
Constitutional characteristics    
   Gender: Male 56.3% (170) 53.9% (21) 0.77
   Atopy in family* 37.1% (112) 48.7% (19) 0.16
   Clinical atopy† 19.9% (60) 15.4% (6) 0.67**
   Personal atopy‡ (61 missing data) 25.7% (64) 61.3% (19) <0.001
Behavioural characteristics    
   Training track    
Bakery 36.8% (111) 28.2% (11)  
Pastry making 23.8% (72) 38.5% (15) 0.14
Hairdressing 39.4% (119) 33.3% (13)  
   Tobacco usage status    
Non smoker 48.0% (145) 56.4% (22)  
Current smoker 48.7% (147) 38.5% (15) 0.36**
Past smoker 3.3% (10) 5.1% (2)  
Baseline FEV1§    
   >80.8% 86.1% (260) 84.6% (33)  
   >76.0% and <80.7% 8.9% (27) 7.7% (3) 0.70**
   <76.0% 5.0% (15) 7.7% (3)  
MBC test    
   Airways responsiveness    
MBC- 88.1% (266) 69.2% (27)  
MBC+ ≥15 and <20% (% (n)) 7.3% (22) 18.0% (7) <0.01**
MBC+ ≥20% (% (n)) 4.6% (14) 12.8% (5)  
Rrs4-16 increase (%)
(mean (sd))
   
<42.4% 88.1% (266) 79.5% (31)  
>42.4% and <54.6% 7.0% (21) 7.7% (3) 0.13**
>54.6% 5.0% (15) 12.8% (5)  
Clinical indicators of airway inflammation    
   Rhinoconjunctivitis-like symptoms|| 8.6% (26) 15.4% (6) 0.24**
   Asthma-like symptoms¶ 3.6% (11) 7.7% (3) 0.21**
Quantitative indicators of airway inflammation    
   FENO in ppb (median (first-third quartiles)) 12.0 (8.7-16.6) 50.8 (20.4-69.5) <0.0001††
   FENO in percent predicted#    
<140% 93.4% (282) 33.3% (13)  
>140% and <225% 6.6% (20) 12.8% (5) <0.001**
>225% 0 53.9% (21)  
   Eosinophil count in nasal fluid lavage    
<1% 93.1% (281) 33.3% (13)  
>1% and <14% 7.0% (21) 5.1% (2) <0.001**
>14% 0 61.5% (24)  
  1. Rrs4-16: mean oscillatory resistance from 4 to 16 Hz; MBC Methacholine Bronchial Challenge test.
  2. * asthma or allergy in siblings and/or parents; † hay fever and/or eczema in childhood and/or asthma in childhood; ‡ defined as a positive response to at least one common allergen at the Skin Prick Tests
  3. § in percent predicted according to the European Respiratory Society
  4. || in case of itchy, runny, stuffy nose, or sneezes and/or about red, burning or weeping eyes, excepted during a respiratory infection; ¶ in case of wheezing, chest tightness, shortness of breath, or cough, excepted during a respiratory infection or under exercise condition.
  5. # according to gender, tobacco usage status and personal atopy ([13])
  6. ** Fisher's exact test; †† Mann-Whitney test