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  1. Recent studies report very low adherence of practitioners to ATS/IDSA recommendations for the treatment of nontuberculous mycobacteria pulmonary disease (NTM-PD), as well as a great variability of practices. T...

    Authors: Pascale Bemer, Olivia Peuchant, Hélène Guet-Revillet, Julien Bador, Charlotte Balavoine, Damien Basille, Guillaume Beltramo, François-Xavier Blanc, Elodie Blanchard, Sarah Boulanger, Anne Bourgoin, David Boutoille, Emmanuelle Cambau, Frédérique Canis, Didier Caparros, Anne Carricajo…

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:333

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Both inadequate and excessive administration of oxygen to acutely unwell patients results in risk of harm. Guidelines recommend titration of oxygen to achieve a target oxygen saturation (SpO2) range. Information ...

    Authors: James C. P. Harper, Ruth Semprini, Nethmi A. Kearns, Lee Hatter, Grace E. Bird, Irene Braithwaite, Allie Eathorne, Mark Weatherall and Richard Beasley

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:332

    Content type: Research

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  3. Defined as the energy applied to the respiratory system by ventilator, mechanical power (MP) of ventilation reflects the risk of ventilation-induced lung injury. This study aims to explore the relationship bet...

    Authors: Yi Chi, Qing Zhang, Siyi Yuan, Zhanqi Zhao, Yun Long and Huaiwu He

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:331

    Content type: Research

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  4. Optimal functionality of synthetic lung surfactant for treatment of respiratory distress syndrome in preterm infants largely depends on the quality and quantity of the surfactant protein B (SP-B) peptide mimic...

    Authors: Frans J. Walther, Shantanu Sharma, Larry M. Gordon and Alan J. Waring

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:330

    Content type: Research

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  5. Patients hospitalized with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations are unable to complete the pulmonary function test reliably due to their poor health conditions. Creating an easy-to-use in...

    Authors: Jing Chen, Zhao Yang, Qun Yuan, Li-quan Guo and Da-xi Xiong

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:329

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Noninvasive estimation of the actual systolic pulmonary artery pressure measured via right-sided heart catheterization (sPAPRHC) is vital for the management of pulmonary hypertension, including chronic thromboemb...

    Authors: Akane Matsumura, Ayako Shigeta, Hajime Kasai, Hajime Yokota, Jiro Terada, Keiko Yamamoto, Toshihiko Sugiura, Takuma Matsumura, Seiichiro Sakao, Nobuhiro Tanabe and Koichiro Tatsumi

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:328

    Content type: Research

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  7. Detection of small peripheral lung nodules is constantly increasing with the development of low dose computed tomography lung cancer screening programs. A tissue diagnosis is often required to confirm malignit...

    Authors: Roberto Piro, Matteo Fontana, Eleonora Casalini, Sofia Taddei, Marco Bertolini, Mauro Iori and Nicola Facciolongo

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:327

    Content type: Case report

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  8. Handheld oscillating positive expiratory pressure (OPEP) devices have been a mainstay of treatment for patients with hypersecretory conditions such as cystic fibrosis (CF) and chronic obstructive pulmonary dis...

    Authors: Kevin J. O’Sullivan, Valerie Power, Barry Linnane, Deirdre McGrath, Hilda Fogarty, Martina Ryan, Rebecca White, Conor Noonan, Eithne Mulloy, Leonard W. O’Sullivan and Colum P. Dunne

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:326

    Content type: Research

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  9. Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the commonest type of lung cancer, which is one of most deadly cancers that possess high morbidity and mortality all over the world. The function of circular RNA NIMA rela...

    Authors: Fei Cao, Xiaoxia Wu, Yongfeng Shan, Binbin Zhang, Haonan Wang, Hui Liu and Hao Yu

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:325

    Content type: Research

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  10. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) and pulmonary function testing (PFT) are noninvasive methods to evaluate the respiratory and circulatory systems. This research aims to evaluate and monitor chronic thro...

    Authors: Hanqing Zhu, Xingxing Sun, Yuan Cao, Bigyan Pudasaini, Wenlan Yang, Jinming Liu and Jian Guo

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:324

    Content type: Research

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  11. Therapeutic bronchoscopy is one of the effective methods in the treatment and management of malignant central airway stenosis (MCAS). However, restenosis after therapeutic bronchoscopy frequently occurs and se...

    Authors: Saibin Wang, Renzhi Zhou, Siyao Zhu and Dan Yan

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:323

    Content type: Research

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  12. Traditional bronchoscopy provides limited approach to peripheral nodules. Shape-sensing robotic-assisted bronchoscopy (SSRAB, Ion™ Endoluminal System) is a new tool for minimally invasive peripheral nodule bio...

    Authors: Michael J. Simoff, Michael A. Pritchett, Janani S. Reisenauer, David E. Ost, Adnan Majid, Colleen Keyes, Roberto F. Casal, Mihir S. Parikh, Javier Diaz-Mendoza, Sebastian Fernandez-Bussy and Erik E. Folch

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:322

    Content type: Research

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  13. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic respiratory disease that seriously threatens people’s health, with high morbidity and mortality worldwide. At present, the clinical diagnosis methods o...

    Authors: Hui Yu, Jing Zhao, Dongyi Liu, Zhen Chen, Jinglai Sun and Xiaoyun Zhao

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:321

    Content type: Research

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  14. To investigate the risk factors and construct a logistic model and an extreme gradient boosting (XGBoost) model to compare the predictive performances for readmission in acute exacerbation of chronic obstructi...

    Authors: Lili Chen and Shiping Chen

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:320

    Content type: Research

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  15. The burden of undiagnosed obstructive lung disease (OLD) (mainly asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) is not fully established, and targets for corrective action are yet to be identified. We asses...

    Authors: Marie-Christine Delmas, Laetitia Bénézet, Céline Ribet, Yuriko Iwatsubo, Marie Zins, Rachel Nadif, Nicolas Roche and Bénédicte Leynaert

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:319

    Content type: Research

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  16. Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), as an important group of innate immunity, could respond rapidly to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection. In this research, we studied the phenotypic changes of circulatory ILCs...

    Authors: Linyue Pan, Xiaoli Chen, Xuanqi Liu, Wenjia Qiu, Yunhuan Liu, Weiping Jiang, Yang Zheng, Yan Mou, Wei Xu, Xiangyang Li, Haiyan Ge and Huili Zhu

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:318

    Content type: Research

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  17. Counselling is considered to be a promising approach to increasing physical activity (PA) in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of the current study was to investigate whether a ...

    Authors: Anne-Kathrin Rausch Osthoff, Swantje Beyer, David Gisi, Spencer Rezek, Ariane Schwank, André Meichtry, Noriane A. Sievi, Thomas Hess and Markus Wirz

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:317

    Content type: Research

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  18. Differences in genetics and microenvironment of LUAD patients with or without TP53 mutation were analyzed to illustrate the role of TP53 mutation within the carcinogenesis of LUAD, which will provide new concepts...

    Authors: Dejun Zeng, Zhengyang Hu, Yanjun Yi, Besskaya Valeria, Guangyao Shan, Zhencong Chen, Cheng Zhan, Miao Lin, Zongwu Lin and Qun Wang

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:316

    Content type: Research

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  19. Assessment of Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQL) in patients with chronic respiratory insufficiency requiring Home Mechanical Ventilation (HMV) requires a valid measurement tool. The Severe Respiratory Insu...

    Authors: Marwan F. Alawieh, Rania N. Bzeih, Mohamad F. El-Khatib, Abla M. Sibai, Lilian A. Ghandour and Salah M. Zeineldine

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:315

    Content type: Research

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  20. Diaphragm atrophy and dysfunction is a major problem among critically ill patients on mechanical ventilation. Ventilator-induced diaphragmatic dysfunction is thought to play a major role, resulting in a failur...

    Authors: Michal Soták, Karel Roubík, Tomáš Henlín and Tomáš Tyll

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:314

    Content type: Research

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  21. The ventricular septal defect (VSD) occluder has been reported to be a novel method for the closure of bronchopleural fistula (BPF). Our study was to confirm the use of VSD occluder in treating BPF after pneum...

    Authors: Yang Bai, Yishi Li, Jing Chi and Shuliang Guo

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:313

    Content type: Research

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  22. Owing to the unsatisfactory results of antibiotic treatment alone, surgical resection is currently considered as adjunctive therapy in patients with nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease (NTM-PD). How...

    Authors: Joong-Yub Kim, Samina Park, In Kyu Park, Chang Hyun Kang, Young Tae Kim, Jaemoon Koh, Jae-Joon Yim and Nakwon Kwak

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:312

    Content type: Research

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  23. Asthma is one of the most prevalent chronic respiratory diseases worldwide. This study aimed to determine the updated prevalence of and risk factors for asthma among individuals aged 45 and older in mainland C...

    Authors: Jingxuan Wan, Qing Zhang, Chunxiao Li and Jiangtao Lin

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:311

    Content type: Research

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  24. Rapid shallow breathing index (RSBI) is the most commonly used parameter for predicting weaning outcome. Measurement of RSBI by Wright spirometer (RSBIstandard) is the standard method in routine clinical practice...

    Authors: Nuttapol Rittayamai, Natwipha Ratchaneewong, Pirat Tanomsina and Withoon Kongla

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:310

    Content type: Research

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  25. Clinical efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with uncommon histology (uNSCLC) is unknown.

    Authors: Koichi Miyashita, Masato Karayama, Yusuke Inoue, Hironao Hozumi, Yuzo Suzuki, Kazuki Furuhashi, Tomoyuki Fujisawa, Noriyuki Enomoto, Yutaro Nakamura, Masato Kono, Takashi Matsui, Mitsuru Niwa, Keigo Koda, Mikio Toyoshima, Sayomi Matsushima, Shun Matsuura…

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:309

    Content type: Research

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  26. Systemic manifestations and comorbidities are characteristics of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and are probably due to systemic inflammation. The histone methyltransferase SUV39H1 controls the T...

    Authors: Tzu-Tao Chen, Sheng-Ming Wu, Kuan-Yuan Chen, Chien-Hua Tseng, Shu-Chuan Ho, Hsiao-Chi Chuang, Po-Hao Feng, Wen-Te Liu, Chia-Li Han, Erick Wan-Chun Huang, Yun-Kai Yeh and Kang-Yun Lee

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:276

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Whether procalcitonin (PCT) or C-reactive protein (CRP) combined with certain clinical characteristics can better distinguish viral from bacterial infections remains unclear. The aim of the study was to assess...

    Authors: Shengchen Duan, Xiaoying Gu, Guohui Fan, Fei Zhou, Guangfa Zhu and Bin Cao

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:308

    Content type: Research

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  28. The main clinical consequences of severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection are pneumonia and respiratory failure even requiring mechanical ventilation. In this context, the lung p...

    Authors: Pierluigi Donatelli, Fabiana Trenatacosti, Maria Rosaria Pellegrino, Roberto Tonelli, Giulia Bruzzi, Alessandro Andreani, Gaia Francesca Cappiello, Dario Andrisani, Filippo Gozzi, Cristina Mussini, Stefano Busani, Gilda Valentina Cavaliere, Massimo Girardis, Elisabetta Bertellini, Enrico Clini and Alessandro Marchioni

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:307

    Content type: Case report

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  29. With the emergence of bronchiectasis as a common respiratory disease, epidemiological data have accumulated. However, the prevalence and impact of psychological comorbidities were not sufficiently evaluated. T...

    Authors: Ji-Ho Lee, Won-Yeon Lee, Suk Joong Yong, Woo Jin Kim, Sooim Sin, Chang Youl Lee, Youlim Kim, Ji Ye Jung and Sang-Ha Kim

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:306

    Content type: Research

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  30. The clinical characteristics of patients with chronic cough are reported only in single-center survey in China, being significantly different from that in western countries. Here, we performed a multicenter st...

    Authors: Kefang Lai, Lianrong Huang, Haijin Zhao, Feng Wu, Guocui Zhen, Haiyan Deng, Wei Luo, Wen Peng, Mei Jiang, Fang Yi, Jianxin Sun, Pusheng Xu, Yuqi Zhou, Yinji Xu, Xiaoling Yuan, Yiju Zhao…

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:305

    Content type: Research

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  31. Reduced exercise tolerance is an important clinical feature of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and is associated with poor prognosis. The 6-min walk test (6MWT) is widely used to assess exercise c...

    Authors: Mingming Deng, Chaonan Liang, Yan Yin, Jun Shu, Xiaoming Zhou, Qiuyue Wang, Gang Hou and Chen Wang

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:304

    Content type: Research

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  32. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a well-known risk factor for tuberculosis (TB). Metformin, which is an essential anti-diabetic drug, has been shown to exhibit anti-TB effects in patients with DM. Its effect on preve...

    Authors: Eunyoung Heo, Eunyoung Kim, Eun Jin Jang and Chang-Hoon Lee

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:303

    Content type: Research

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  33. Pressurized metered dose inhalers (pMDIs) and dry powder inhalers (DPIs) are commonly used drug-delivering devices for patients with chronic airway diseases. Appropriate peak inhalation flow rate (PIFR) and in...

    Authors: Jian-lan Hua, Xiao-fen Ye, Chun-ling Du, Ning Xie, Jie-qing Zhang, Man Li and Jing Zhang

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:302

    Content type: Research

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  34. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations are heterogenous and profoundly impact the disease trajectory. Bioactive lipid lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) has been implicated in airway inflammation ...

    Authors: Qingling Li, Weng Wong, Andrew Birnberg, Arindam Chakrabarti, Xiaoying Yang, David F. Choy, Julie Olsson, Erik Verschueren, Margaret Neighbors, Wendy Sandoval, Carrie M. Rosenberger, Michele A. Grimbaldeston and Gaik W. Tew

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:301

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Psittacosis is a zoonotic infectious disease caused by the transmission of the bacterium Chlamydia psittaci (C. psittaci) from birds to humans. Infections in humans mainly present as community-acquired pneumonia ...

    Authors: Huan-huan Wu, Lan-fang Feng and Shuang-yan Fang

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:300

    Content type: Research

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  36. Patients with COPD experience acute worsenings, termed ‘exacerbations’. While other terms to describe these events have been proposed there is no consensus on terminology which has led to multiple terms being ...

    Authors: Christine Mwasuku, Joanne King, Richard E. K. Russell and Mona Bafadhel

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:299

    Content type: Research

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  37. Physiotherapy is a cornerstone of cystic fibrosis (CF) management, yet the Australian CF Data Registry (ACFDR) currently does not record physiotherapy-related data. This study aimed to gather opinions from lea...

    Authors: Angela Potter, Bhavita Pancholi, Lahni Smith and Carol Maher

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:298

    Content type: Research

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  38. Acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) is an important event in the course of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease that negatively affects patients’ quality of life and leads to ...

    Authors: Lingling Tang, Suofang Shi, Bohan Wang, Li Liu, Ying Yang, Xianhong Sun, Zhenhua Ni and Xiongbiao Wang

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:296

    Content type: Research

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  39. In the local setting, asthma control is assessed by symptoms and signs elicited by clinicians because of the limited availability of spirometry. Hence, we intended to develop a patient reported outcome measure...

    Authors: Yalini Guruparan, Thiyahiny S. Navaratinaraja, Gowry Selvaratnam, Nalika Gunawardena and Shalini Sri Ranganathan

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:295

    Content type: Research

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  40. Acute exacerbation (AE) is the most lethal postoperative complication in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF); however, prediction before surgery is difficult. We investigated the role of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose po...

    Authors: Hee-Young Yoon, Suk Hyun Lee, Sejin Ha, Jin-Sook Ryu and Jin Woo Song

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:294

    Content type: Research

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  41. Re-expansion pulmonary edema is an uncommon complication following drainage of a pneumothorax or pleural effusion. While pneumothorax is noted to complicate COVID-19 patients, no case of COVID-19 developing re...

    Authors: Kosaku Komiya, Ryosuke Hamanaka, Hisayuki Shuto, Hiroki Yoshikawa, Atsushi Yokoyama, Kazufumi Hiramatsu and Jun-ichi Kadota

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:293

    Content type: Case report

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  42. Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways involving many different factors. This study aimed to screen for the critical genes using DNA methylation/CpGs and miRNAs involved in childhood atopic a...

    Authors: Rui Chen, Li-Zhen Piao, Ling Liu and Xiao-Fei Zhang

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:292

    Content type: Research article

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  43. In recent years, the application of immunotherapy combined with chemotherapy in the first-line lung cancer has showed significant benefit in improving long-term survival. Immunotherapy also has risks of immune...

    Authors: Yu Feng, Cuncun Chen, Liming Zhao, Xuyou Zhu, Xiaoping Zhu and Qiang Li

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:291

    Content type: Case report

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  44. Chronic cough is characterized by cough as the only or main symptom, with a duration of more than 8 weeks and no obvious abnormality in chest X-ray examination. Its etiology is complex, including respiratory d...

    Authors: Jiaofei Cao, Yue Hu, Shaojun Jin, Fei Chen, Li Li and Huaqiong Huang

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:290

    Content type: Case report

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  45. Refractory dyspnea or breathlessness is a common symptom in patients with advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), with a high negative impact on quality of life (QoL). Low dosed opioids have bee...

    Authors: Marlies van Dijk, Kris J. M. Mooren, Jan-Willem K. van den Berg, Wendy J. C. van Beurden-Moeskops, Roxane Heller-Baan, Sander M. de Hosson, Wai Yee Lam-Wong, Liesbeth Peters, Karin Pool and Huib A. M. Kerstjens

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:289

    Content type: Study protocol

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  46. Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) is a syndrome resulting from bleeding in the microcirculation of the lung, with a poor prognosis. The study aim was to identify prognostic factors of DAH, especially bronchoal...

    Authors: Kensuke Kanaoka, Seigo Minami, Shoichi Ihara and Kiyoshi Komuta

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:288

    Content type: Research

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  47. Lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) is the most common histological subtype of primary lung cancer. To identify the biomarker of diagnosis for LUAD is of great significance. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) were previous...

    Authors: Wen Huang, Xinxing Wang, Fubing Wu and Fanggui Xu

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:287

    Content type: Research

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  48. In the treatment of lung cancer, the presence or absence of mediastinal lymph node involvement has a significant bearing on the indication for surgery. In addition, if a tumor is found in the trachea during pr...

    Authors: Yutaka Takahara, Kouichi Yamamura, Nozomu Motono, Taku Oikawa, Hidetaka Uramoto and Shiro Mizuno

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:286

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  49. Oxygen therapy is routinely administered to mechanically ventilated patients. However, there remains uncertainty about the optimal oxygen titration target in patients with the acute respiratory distress syndro...

    Authors: Andrew J. Boyle, David N. Holmes, Jonathan Hackett, Susanna Gilliland, Michael McCloskey, Cecilia M. O’Kane, Paul Young, Stefania Di Gangi and Daniel F. McAuley

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:285

    Content type: Research article

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