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  1. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of the lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR), neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio on overall survival and disease-free survival in patien...

    Authors: Ricard Ramos, Ivan Macía, Arturo Navarro-Martin, Carlos Déniz, Francisco Rivas, Anna Ureña, Cristina Masuet-Aumatell, Camilo Moreno, Ernest Nadal and Ignacio Escobar

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:75

    Content type: Article

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  2. Blood eosinophil count may predict treatment response in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) during acute exacerbations (AE). However, the ability and thresholds of blood eosinophil coun...

    Authors: Hye Seon Kang, Sung Kyoung Kim, Yong Hyun Kim, Jin Woo Kim, Sang Haak Lee, Hyung Kyu Yoon and Chin Kook Rhee

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:74

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Scarring central airway stenosis (SCAS) is a potentially life-threatening condition with debilitating symptoms. Interventional bronchoscopy is increasingly used to relieve symptoms in patients with SCAS, but r...

    Authors: Kunyan Sun, Hong Zhang, Wei Zhang, Yuan Cheng and Guangfa Wang

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:73

    Content type: Research article

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  4. To investigate if acute pulmonary vasodilation by sildenafil improves right ventricular function in patients with acute intermediate-high risk pulmonary embolism (PE).

    Authors: Asger Andersen, Farhad Waziri, Jacob Gammelgaard Schultz, Sarah Holmboe, Søren Warberg Becker, Tage Jensen, Hanne Maare Søndergaard, Karen Kaae Dodt, Ole May, Ulrik Markus Mortensen, Won Yong Kim, Søren Mellemkjær and Jens Erik Nielsen-Kudsk

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:72

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Physical inactivity is common in severe asthma and associated with poor health outcomes. New approaches are needed to address physical inactivity in this group.

    Authors: Sarah A. Hiles, Paola D. Urroz, Peter G. Gibson, Adam Bogdanovs and Vanessa M. McDonald

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:71

    Content type: Research Article

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  6. Lower respiratory tract (LRT) specimen culture is widely performed for the identification of Aspergillus. We investigated the clinical features and prognosis of patients with Aspergillus isolation from LRT specim...

    Authors: Yu Gu, Xianping Ye, Yu Wang, Kunlu Shen, Jinjin Zhong, Bilin Chen and Xin Su

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:69

    Content type: Research Article

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  7. Rhomboid intercostal block (RIB) and Rhomboid intercostal block with sub-serratus plane block (RISS) are the two types of plane blocks used for postoperative analgesia after video-assisted thoracoscopic surger...

    Authors: Wei Deng, Xiao-min Hou, Xu-yan Zhou and Qing-he Zhou

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:68

    Content type: Research Article

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  8. Transbronchial lung cryobiopsy (TBLC) has been introduced as an alternative to surgical lung biopsy (SLB) in the diagnostics of interstitial lung diseases (ILD). Despite controversy on safety, TBLC is increasi...

    Authors: Jesper Rømhild Davidsen, Inge Raadal Skov, Ida Guldbæk Louw and Christian B. Laursen

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:67

    Content type: Article

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  9. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is a critical activator of inflammation. Circulating mtDNA released causes lung injury in experimental models. We hypothesized that elevated plasma mtDNA levels are associated with ac...

    Authors: Jia-yu Mao, Dong-kai Li, Hong-min Zhang, Xiao-ting Wang and Da-wei Liu

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:66

    Content type: Research Article

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  10. Inhaler selection is important when managing respiratory conditions; a patient’s inhalation technique should be appropriate for the selected device, and patients should ideally be able to use a device successf...

    Authors: Alfredo Chetta, Arzu Yorgancioglu, Mario Scuri, Sara Barile, Daniele Guastalla and P. N. Richard Dekhuijzen

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:65

    Content type: Research Article

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  11. We aimed to identify high-risk factors for disease progression and fatality for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients.

    Authors: Wenjun Wang, Mingwang Shen, Yusha Tao, Christopher K. Fairley, Qin Zhong, Zongren Li, Hui Chen, Jason J. Ong, Dawei Zhang, Kai Zhang, Ning Xing, Huayuan Guo, Enqiang Qin, Xizhou Guan, Feifei Yang, Sibing Zhang…

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:64

    Content type: Research Article

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  12. The precise classification of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP) is essential for selecting treatment as well as estimating clinical outcomes; however, this is sometimes difficult in clinical practice. Th...

    Authors: Yoichiro Aoshima, Masato Karayama, Yasuoki Horiike, Kazutaka Mori, Hideki Yasui, Hironao Hozumi, Yuzo Suzuki, Kazuki Furuhashi, Tomoyuki Fujisawa, Noriyuki Enomoto, Yutaro Nakamura, Naoki Inui and Takafumi Suda

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:63

    Content type: Research Article

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  13. The most important target cell of SARS-CoV-2 is Type II pneumocyte which produces and secretes pulmonary surfactant (PS) that prevents alveolar collapse. PS instillation therapy is dramatically effective for i...

    Authors: Hiroko Kitaoka, Hisato Kobayashi, Takayuki Takimoto and Takashi Kijima

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:62

    Content type: Technical advance

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  14. Inflammation caused by chronic lung disease in childhood may lead to delayed heart rate recovery (HRR) however, there is lack of evidence on HRR in this population. The aim was to assess HRR after functional ...

    Authors: Élida Pereira Silva, Bruno Alvarenga Soares, Mariana M. Reimberg, Raphael Ritti-Dias, Karina Silva Nascimento, Fabiana Silvia Anjos, Gustavo Falbo Wandalsen, Dirceu Solé, Simone Dal Corso and Fernanda Cordoba Lanza

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:61

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Asthma and osteoarthritis (OA) are medical conditions that inhibit physical activity and adversely affect quality of life. Despite the high prevalence, there are limited studies focusing on the comorbid condit...

    Authors: Hyeon-Kyoung Koo, Pamela Song and Joo-Hyun Lee

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:59

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Hyperoxia downregulates the tight junction (TJ) proteins of the alveolar epithelium and leads to barrier dysfunction. Previous study has showed that STE20/SPS1-related proline/alanine-rich kinase (SPAK) interf...

    Authors: Chih-Hao Shen, Jr-Yu Lin, Cheng-Yo Lu, Sung-Sen Yang, Chung-Kan Peng and Kun-Lun Huang

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:58

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Anti-synthetase syndrome (ASSD) is a chronic autoimmune condition characterized by antibodies directed against an aminoacycl transfer RNA synthetase (ARS) along with a group of clinical features including the ...

    Authors: Xi Zhan, Wei Yan, Ying Wang, Qing Li, Xuhua Shi, Yanli Gao and Qiao Ye

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:57

    Content type: Research article

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  18. The effects of comorbidities on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have been usually studied individually in the past. In this study, we aimed to investigate the comorbidities associated with mortali...

    Authors: Youngmee Kim, Ye-Jee Kim and Won-Kyung Cho

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:56

    Content type: Article

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  19. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Jinle Lin, Wuyuan Tao, Jian Wei, Jian Wu, Wenwu Zhang, Jianbing Ye, Xuan Fu, Shiyong Zeng, Qingli Dou, Lijun Wang and Fang Tian

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:54

    Content type: Publisher Correction

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    The original article was published in BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:212

  20. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) has been reported to be significantly associated with chronic rhinosinusitis, but the strength of the association is still debated.

    Authors: Eliana Finocchio, Francesca Locatelli, Francesca Sanna, Roberta Vesentini, Pierpaolo Marchetti, Gianluca Spiteri, Leonardo Antonicelli, Salvatore Battaglia, Roberto Bono, Angelo Guido Corsico, Marcello Ferrari, Nicola Murgia, Pietro Pirina, Mario Olivieri and Giuseppe Verlato

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:53

    Content type: Research article

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  21. To develop and validate a clinical risk prediction score for noninvasive ventilation (NIV) failure defined as intubation after a trial of NIV in non-surgical patients.

    Authors: Mihaela S. Stefan, Aruna Priya, Penelope S. Pekow, Jay S. Steingrub, Nicholas S. Hill, Tara Lagu, Karthik Raghunathan, Anusha G. Bhat and Peter K. Lindenauer

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:52

    Content type: Article

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  22. Malnutrition and altered body composition are well-documented in chronic pulmonary diseases; however, investigation of nutritional status in interstitial lung disease (ILD) is limited. This study aimed to desc...

    Authors: Alisar A. Kanjrawi, Lara Mathers, Susanne Webster, Tamera J. Corte and Sharon Carey

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:51

    Content type: Research article

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  23. LINC01116 is a recently identified oncogenic lncRNA in glioma. Differential expression analysis using the public gene expression analysis tool GEPIA revealed the upregulation of LINC01116 in lung cancer. We st...

    Authors: Wenzhou Liu, Feihai Liang, Guangyu Yang and Lei Xian

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:50

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) have progressive and disabling symptoms, as well as a burden of treatments and a difficult clinical evaluation that make health-related quality of life a particularly ...

    Authors: Miguel Ángel Amor-García, Sara Ibáñez-García, Xandra García-González, Teresa Mombiela, Cristina Villanueva-Bueno, Ana Herranz-Alonso and María Sanjurjo-Sáez

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:48

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a common nocosomial infection in intensive care unit (ICU). Local microbiological surveillance of pathogens and resistance patterns for early-onset VAP (EOVAP) and late...

    Authors: Pavarit Arayasukawat, Apichart So-ngern, Wipa Reechaipichitkul, Worawat Chumpangern, Itthiphat Arunsurat, Pailin Ratanawatkul and Wanna Chuennok

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:47

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Sickle-cell anaemia is a widespread genetic disease prevalent worldwide among African and African-American populations. The pathogenesis is most often revealed by pulmonary conditions, including acute thoracic...

    Authors: Marion Teulier, Alexandre Elabbadi, Grigorios Gerotziafas, François Lionnet, Guillaume Voiriot and Muriel Fartoukh

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:46

    Content type: Case report

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  27. Cigarette smoke (CS) is a major risk factor for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Follistatin-like protein 1 (FSTL1), a critical factor during embryogenesis particularly in respiratory lung develop...

    Authors: Ying Liu, Jiawei Xu, Tian Liu, Jinxiang Wu, Jiping Zhao, Junfei Wang, Minfang Zou, Lili Cao, Xiaofei Liu, Yun Pan, Siyuan Huang and Liang Dong

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:45

    Content type: Research article

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  28. The risk of developing Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), the associated comorbidities and response to bronchodilators might differ in men and women. The objective of this study was to determine the...

    Authors: Josep Montserrat-Capdevila, Josep Ramon Marsal, Marta Ortega, Maria Teresa Castañ-Abad, Miquel Alsedà, Ferran Barbé and Pere Godoy

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:44

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Besides the clinical benefit of crizotinib in ALK-rearranged metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), concerns about its hepatotoxicity have arisen. It is not clear whether this is a drug class side effe...

    Authors: Flávia Amaral Duarte, Leonardo Brand Rodrigues, Flávia Rocha Paes, Paulo Henrique Costa Diniz and Helena Flávia Cuba de Almada Lima

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:43

    Content type: Case report

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  30. Rapid and accurate identification of right ventricular (RV) dysfunction is essential for decreasing mortality associated with acute pulmonary embolism (PE), particularly for non-high-risk patients without hypo...

    Authors: Yizhuo Gao, Lianghong Chen and Dong Jia

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:42

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Zosteriform skin metastasis (ZSM) is rare, and its etiology is not well understood. ZSM is possibly derived from the retrograde movement of cancer cells through the lymphatic vessels during disease development...

    Authors: Yohei Maki, Yoshifumi Kimizuka, Koji Murakami, Kimiya Sato, Hisashi Sasaki, Takayuki Yamamoto, Chie Watanabe, Tomoya Sano, Jun Miyata, Yuji Fujikura and Akihiko Kawana

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:41

    Content type: Case report

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  32. Lung ultrasound score is a potential method for determining pulmonary edema in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) has become the preferred modality to manag...

    Authors: Fei Wang, Chunxia Wang, Jingyi Shi, Yijun Shan, Huijie Miao, Ting Sun, Yiping Zhou and Yucai Zhang

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:40

    Content type: Research article

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  33. To evaluate the feasibility and safety of microcoil in simultaneous localization for multiple pulmonary nodules before video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS).

    Authors: Yanyan Xu, Lingchuan Ma, Hongliang Sun, Zhenguo Huang, Zhenrong Zhang, Fei Xiao, Qianli Ma, Jie Lin and Sheng Xie

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:39

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Clinical management of COVID-19 requires close monitoring of lung function. While computed tomography (CT) offers ideal way to identify the phenotypes, it cannot monitor the patient response to therapeutic int...

    Authors: Zhanqi Zhao, Jin-Shou Zhang, Ying-Tzu Chen, Hou-Tai Chang, Yeong-Long Hsu, Inéz Frerichs and Andy Adler

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:38

    Content type: Case report

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  35. COVID-19 is a systemic viral infection which mainly targets the human respiratory system with many secondary clinical manifestations especially affecting the hematopoietic system and haemostasis. Few studies h...

    Authors: Albert Yick Hou Lim, Jun Leng Goh, Mae Chui Wei Chua, Bee Hoon Heng, John Arputham Abisheganaden and Pradeep Paul George

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:37

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Persistent allergic airway diseases cause a great burden worldwide. Their pathogenesis is not clear enough. There is evidence that one of the recently described cytokine interleukin (IL) 22 may be involved in ...

    Authors: Laura Tamasauskiene, Vilte Marija Gintauskiene, Daina Bastyte and Brigita Sitkauskiene

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:36

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) is a disease that is associated with severe uncontrolled eosinophilic asthma. Eosinophils play an important pathogenic role in the development of both disea...

    Authors: Carlos Martínez-Rivera, Ignasi Garcia-Olivé, Blanca Urrutia-Royo, Maria Basagaña-Torrento, Antoni Rosell and Jorge Abad

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:35

    Content type: Case report

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  38. It is necessary to analyze the CT pulmonary vascular parameters and disease severity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients to provide evidence support for the management of COPD.

    Authors: Tao Yang, Chihua Chen and Zhongyuanlong Chen

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:34

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Bilirubin is a potent antioxidant and higher serum bilirubin levels have been associated with improved COPD outcomes. We performed a systematic review to evaluate the association between serum bilirubin levels...

    Authors: David M. MacDonald, Ken M. Kunisaki, Timothy J. Wilt and Arianne K. Baldomero

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:33

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Early suspicion followed by assessing lung function with spirometry could decrease the underdiagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in primary care. We aimed to develop a nomogram to predict ...

    Authors: Sang Chul Lee, Chansik An, Jongha Yoo, Sungho Park, Donggyo Shin and Chang Hoon Han

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:32

    Content type: Research Article

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  41. The most common and severe infection of Aspergillus fumigatus is invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA), which is usually seen in immunocompromised patients. Neutropenia is the primary risk factor implicated in I...

    Authors: Chunlai Feng, Ming Zhang, Sujuan Zhang, Jun Zhang, Chong Li and Jun Zhou

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:31

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Regular exercise is important in the management of COPD. Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) facilitates a more physically active lifestyle through exercise participation, ideally without compromising non-exercise p...

    Authors: Sarah Ward, Mark Orme, Jakub Zatloukal and Sally Singh

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:30

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Whipple’s disease is a chronic infectious disease caused by the Gram-positive bacterium Tropheryma whipplei (TW), which not only affects the gastrointestinal tract and causes malabsorption of nutrients, but sever...

    Authors: Wei Li, Qun Zhang, Yanling Xu, Xiyue Zhang, Qian Huang and Zhenzhong Su

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:29

    Content type: Case report

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  44. Since there was no previous report, we analyzed the relationship between French Risk Stratification parameters in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and mean pulmonary arterial pressures (mPAP) using Japan ...

    Authors: Yuichi Tamura, Hiraku Kumamaru, Kohtaro Abe, Toru Satoh, Hiroaki Miyata, Aiko Ogawa, Nobuhiro Tanabe, Masaru Hatano, Atsushi Yao, Ichizo Tsujino, Keiichi Fukuda, Hiroshi Kimura, Masataka Kuwana, Hiromi Matsubara and Koichiro Tatsumi

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:28

    Content type: Research article

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  45. Extranodal natural killer/T cell lymphoma (ENKL) is a rare subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and lung involvement is extremely rare. The patients with pulmonary ENKL always presented unspecific symptoms of the ...

    Authors: Wei Wang, Zhi-Tao Li, Nan-Nan Cui, Guo-Bin Wang and Shui-Qiao Fu

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:27

    Content type: Case report

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  46. In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients, combination treatment with long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA) and long-acting β2 agonist (LABA) increases forced expiratory volume in one second ...

    Authors: Masato Muraki, Yuki Kunita, Ken Shirahase, Ryo Yamazaki, Soichiro Hanada, Hirochiyo Sawaguchi and Yuji Tohda

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:26

    Content type: Research article

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