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  1. Secondary organizing pneumonia (SOP) is difficult to distinguish from cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP) considering various clinical situations. SOP caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis is rare; indeed, it h...

    Authors: Eun Jin Kim and Kyung Chan Kim

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:252

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Endobronchial lipoma is an extremely rare benign tumor, which is generally located in the first three subdivisions of the tracheobronchial tree. According to the existing literature, all endobronchial lipomas ...

    Authors: Shunjin Zhao, Yuexiang Shui and Zhong Dai

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:251

    Content type: Case report

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  3. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Esmaeil Mortaz, Shamila D. Alipoor, Masoud Movassaghi, Mohammad Varahram, Jahangir Ghorbani, Gert Folkerts, Johan Garssen and Ian M. Adcock

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:250

    Content type: Correction

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    The original article was published in BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2017 17:68

  4. Evidence of mediastinal Lymph Node Enlargement (LNE) on CT scan is a common finding in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). We sought to investigate whether the involvement of mediastinal lymph nodes is associ...

    Authors: Giacomo Sgalla, Anna Rita Larici, Nicoletta Golfi, Mariarosaria Calvello, Alessandra Farchione, Annemilia Del Ciello, Francesco Varone, Bruno Iovene, Riccardo Manfredi and Luca Richeldi

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:249

    Content type: Research article

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  5. One forth whole-world population is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), but 90% of them are asymptotic latent infection without any symptoms but positive result in IFN-γ release assay. There is lack o...

    Authors: Zhenhong Wei, Yuanting Li, Chaojun Wei, Yonghong Li, Hui Xu, Yu Wu, Yanjuan Jia, Rui Guo, Jing Jia, Xiaoming Qi, Zhenhao Li and Xiaoling Gao

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:248

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Myospherulosis develops as the result of a reaction between exogenous lipids and red blood cells (RBC) of the patient, being the latter injured when perceived as a foreign body by the immune system, triggering...

    Authors: Liliana Fernández-Trujillo, Santiago Sanchez, Saveria Sangiovanni-Gonzalez, Eliana I. Morales, Mauricio Velásquez and Luz F. Sua

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:246

    Content type: Case report

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  7. Chest CT scan and chest x-rays show characteristic radiographic findings in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. Chest x-ray can be used in diagnosis and follow up in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. The study a...

    Authors: Liqa A. Rousan, Eyhab Elobeid, Musaab Karrar and Yousef Khader

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:245

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Factors affecting the safety of bronchoscopy in patients with malignant hematologic disorders have not been well described. We evaluated the safety of bronchoscopy and describe factors affecting its complication ...

    Authors: Hironori Uruga, Toshitaka Sato, Aya Nishida, Naoyuki Uchida, Masanori Tsuji, Shuhei Moriguchi, Yui Takahashi, Kazumasa Ogawa, Kyoko Murase, Shigeo Hanada, Hisashi Takaya, Atsushi Miyamoto, Nasa Morokawa, Muneyoshi Kimura, Hideki Araoka, Rumiko Tsuchihashi…

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:243

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Lung cancer is a frequent comorbidity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the local risk of developing lung cancer related to regional emphysema distribution and clinical outcome has not ...

    Authors: Jung Won Heo, Hye Seon Kang, Chan Kwon Park, Sung Kyoung Kim, Ju Sang Kim, Jin Woo Kim, Seung Joon Kim, Sang Haak Lee and Chang Dong Yeo

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:242

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) often leads to hospitalisation and invasive aspergillosis (IA) is a serious complication. Aspergillus sensitisation may worsen symptoms in COPD.

    Authors: Emily E. Hammond, Charles S. McDonald, Jørgen Vestbo and David W. Denning

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:241

    Content type: Research article

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  11. As part of the multinational I-O Optimise research initiative, this retrospective cohort study of patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) evaluated real-world treatment patterns and survival ...

    Authors: Marta Soares, Luís Antunes, Patrícia Redondo, Marina Borges, Ruben Hermans, Dony Patel, Fiona Grimson, Robin Munro, Carlos Chaib, Laure Lacoin, Melinda Daumont, John R. Penrod, John C. O’Donnell, Maria José Bento and Francisco Rocha Gonçalves

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:240

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Increasing cases of pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) in immunocompetent patients with severe influenza have been reported. Howevere, the risk factors for occurence and death are largely unknown.

    Authors: Liang Chen, Xiudi Han, Yanli Li, Chunxiao Zhang and Xiqian Xing

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:239

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Patients treated for non-squamous (non-Sq) non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) often require repeat biopsies to determine the optimal subsequent treatment. However, the differences between rebiopsy and initial ...

    Authors: Akiko Tateishi, Yuji Matsumoto, Midori Tanaka, Toshiyuki Nakai, Shinji Sasada, Masahiro Aoshima and Takaaki Tsuchida

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:238

    Content type: Research article

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  14. This study aimed to evaluate whether the Homocysteine (Hcy) level was elevated in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients and its correlation with the occurrence and acute progression of COPD.

    Authors: Bing Wei, Tian Tian, Yugeng Liu and Chunsheng Li

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:237

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is an important cause of acute respiratory failure (ARF) in immunocompromised patients, yet no actual clinical tool suitably identifies patients at risk. Recently, a multivariable pre...

    Authors: Ryoung-Eun Ko, Jongmin Lee, Soo Jin Na, Na Ri Jeong, Seon Woo Kim and Kyeongman Jeon

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:236

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is a hereditary pulmonary and extra-pulmonary disease that occurs equally in men and women. However, a difference in morbidity and mortality rates between the sexes has been long documente...

    Authors: G. Y. Lam, J. Goodwin, P. Wilcox and B. S. Quon

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:234

    Content type: Case report

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  17. Lower respiratory tract infection (LRIs) is very common both in terms of community-acquired infection and hospital-acquired infection. Sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) are the most important spec...

    Authors: Zheng Peng, Jin’an Zhou and Lei Tian

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:233

    Content type: Research article

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  18. A study of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) burden by chest roentgenography (CXR) with reference to interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) is still lacking in rheumatic patients of an intermediate tuberculo...

    Authors: Ping-Huai Wang, Chou-Han Lin, Ting-Hui Chang and Chien-Sheng Wu

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:232

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) angiography is a useful examination to detect the source of the bleeding in patients with hemoptysis. The aim of the study was to prospectively evaluate the role and cl...

    Authors: Huu Y Le, Van Nam Le, Ngoc Hung Pham, Anh Tuan Phung, Thanh Tung Nguyen and Quyet Do

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:231

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Oxygen is an essential therapy for hypoxemia but is scarce in low-income settings. Oxygen conserving devices optimize delivery, but to date have been designed for adults in high-income settings. Here we presen...

    Authors: Jerry Mulondo, Stella Maleni, Hellen Aanyu-Tukamuhebwa, Ezekiel Mupere, Alfred Onubia Andama, Chin Hei Ng, Stephen Burkot, Ella M. E. Forgie, Qaasim Mian, Christine M. Bachman, Gerard Rummery, Daniel Lieberman, David Bell, Michael T. Hawkes and Akos Somoskovi

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:230

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Bronchoscopy is applied broadly in the diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary diseases. Over the past few decades, an increasing number of studies about bronchoscopy have been published. However, little is known...

    Authors: Boxue He, Pengfei Zhang, Qidong Cai, Shuai Shi, Hui Xie, Yuqian Zhang, Xiong Peng, Zhenyu Zhao, Wei Yin and Xiang Wang

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:229

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Severe asthma is a complex heterogeneous disease typically requiring advanced therapies. Underlying the treatment of all asthma, however, is the consistent recommendation across international guidelines to ens...

    Authors: J. Michael Ramsahai, Emily King, Robert Niven, Gael Tavernier, Peter A. B. Wark and Jodie L. Simpson

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:228

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Hydroxyethyl Starch (HES) 130/0.4 (6%) is a commonly used intravascular volume expander with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. In this study, we aimed to compare the histopathologic activity of HES...

    Authors: Hasan Oğuz Kapicibasi, Hasan Ali Kiraz and Nazli Demir Gök

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:227

    Content type: Research article

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  24. We explain to Dr. Benjamin (corresponding author) about why low-dose computed tomography reduce lung cancer mortality without significantly reducing all-cause mortality. We also conduct an up-to-date meta-anal...

    Authors: Kai-Lin Huang, Shih-Yuan Wang, Wan-Chen Lu, Ya-Hui Chang, Jian Su and Yen-Ta Lu

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:226

    Content type: Correspondence

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    The original article was published in BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:225

  25. The article by Huang K-L et al. Effects of low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) screening on lung cancer contains a conclusion that is not consistent with the data presented. With reference to the National Lung...

    Authors: Don Benjamin

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:225

    Content type: Correspondence

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    The original article was published in BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2019 19:126

    The Correspondence to this article has been published in BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:226

  26. Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a chronic, genetic, incurable disease that affects primarily the respiratory and gastrointestinal systems. End-stage lung disease is the leading cause of death in people with CF, and lu...

    Authors: Sigrid Ladores, Leigh Ann Bray, Janet Brown, Jessica Corcoran, Jeremy Jordan and Erin Buczek

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:224

    Content type: Case report

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  27. miRNAs regulate a multitude of cellular processes and their aberrant regulation is linked to human cancer. However, the role of miR-425-5p in lung cancer (LCa) is still largely unclear. Here, we explored the r...

    Authors: Jin-shan Zhou, Ze-shan Yang, Si-yang Cheng, Jiang-hao Yu, Chao-Jun Huang and Qiang Feng

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:223

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Inhalation therapy is the backbone of asthma and COPD control. However, inhaler adherence and device mishandling continue to be a problem in real life. Some studies have shown that using a patient-preferred in...

    Authors: Jens Schreiber, Tina Sonnenburg and Eva Luecke

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:222

    Content type: Research article

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  29. It has been shown that home mechanical ventilation improves quality of life, but it has not been widely studied which particular patient groups benefit the most from starting this type of therapy. The purpose ...

    Authors: Luca Valko, Szabolcs Baglyas, V. Anna Gyarmathy, Janos Gal and Andras Lorx

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:221

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Each myositis-specific autoantibody (MSA) tends to have a distinct clinical presentation. Coexistence of MSAs do not commonly occur. If they do, it is unknown if there is an overlap of clinical features or pro...

    Authors: Zi Ying Li, Evanpaul Gill, Fan Mo and Candice Reyes

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:220

    Content type: Case report

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  31. Lung adenocarcinoma (LAD) is a prevalent type of bronchogenic malignant tumor and one of the most critical factors related to human death. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in many complex biological ...

    Authors: Tao Wang, Ruiren Zhai, Xiuhua Lv, Ke Wang and Junqing Xu

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:217

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Taking into consideration a recent surge of a lung injury condition associated with electronic cigarette use, we devised an in vitro model of sub-chronic exposure of human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) in...

    Authors: Baishakhi Ghosh, Hermes Reyes-Caballero, Sevcan Gül Akgün-Ölmez, Kristine Nishida, Lakshmana Chandrala, Lena Smirnova, Shyam Biswal and Venkataramana K. Sidhaye

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:216

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) has been reported to play a part in the development of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and its complications. However, the relationship between TNF-α and OSA still remains inconcl...

    Authors: Yuan Cao, Yali Song, Pu Ning, Liyu Zhang, Shuang Wu, Juan Quan and Qiao Li

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:215

    Content type: Review

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  34. The flow-volume (FV) curve pattern in the pulmonary function test (PFT) for obstructive lung diseases is widely recognized. However, there are few reports on FV curve pattern in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (...

    Authors: Hiroaki Nakagawa, Ryota Otoshi, Kohsuke Isomoto, Takuma Katano, Tomohisa Baba, Shigeru Komatsu, Eri Hagiwara, Yasutaka Nakano, Ichiro Kuwahira and Takashi Ogura

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:214

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is one of the most common malignant tumors all over the world. In recent years, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been proven to participate in the development of different...

    Authors: Lei Weng, Kejie Qiu, Weijing Gao, Chunbo Shi and Fen Shu

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:213

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Contradictory results regarding changes in serum club cell protein 16 (CC16) levels in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) have been reported, challenging the value of CC16 as a diagnostic...

    Authors: Jinle Lin, Wuyuan Tao, Jian Wei, Jian Wu, Wenwu Zhang, Jianbing Ye, Xuan Fu, Shiyong Zeng, Qingli Dou, Lijun Wang and Fang Tian

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:212

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Benralizumab, an anti-interleukin-5 (IL-5) receptor α monoclonal antibody, significantly reduces the number of annual exacerbations and oral corticosteroid (OCS) maintenance doses for patients with severe eosi...

    Authors: Takanori Numata, Hanae Miyagawa, Saiko Nishioka, Keitaro Okuda, Hirofumi Utsumi, Mitsuo Hashimoto, Shunsuke Minagawa, Takeo Ishikawa, Hiromichi Hara, Jun Araya and Kazuyoshi Kuwano

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:207

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in infants undergoing cardiac surgery is associated with significant mortality and prolonged ventilation; surfactant administration may be a useful therapy. The purpo...

    Authors: Rongyuan Zhang, Xu Wang, Shoujun Li and Jun Yan

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:210

    Content type: Research article

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  39. ALK-rearrangement is observed in < 5% non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cases and prior to the advent of oral tyrosine kinase inhibitors, the natural history of oncogenic NSCLC was typically poor. Literature ...

    Authors: Maria Walls, Gerard M. Walls, Jacqueline A. James, Kyle T. Crawford, Hossam Abdulkhalek, Tom B. Lynch, Aaron J. Peace, Terry E. McManus and O. Rhun Evans

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:209

    Content type: Case report

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  40. Plasma levels of cell-free DNA (cf-DNA) are known to be elevated in sepsis and high levels are associated with a poor prognosis. Mechanical ventilation affects systemic inflammation in which lung-protective venti...

    Authors: Axel Nyberg, Alexander Larsson, Juulia Jylhävä, Mikko Hurme, Jesper Sperber, Miklós Lipcsey and Markus Castegren

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:206

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a group of heterogeneous primary immunodeficiencies characterised by a dysregulated and impaired immune response. In addition to an increased susceptibility to infect...

    Authors: Jake E. Cowen, James Stevenson, Madhusudan Paravasthu, James Darroch, Anu Jacob, Salaheddin Tueger, John R. Gosney, Anneliese Simons, Lisa G. Spencer and Eoin P. Judge

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:205

    Content type: Case report

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  42. Adiponectin is a biomarker closely related to heart failure. However, its role in pulmonary hypertension remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the association between adiponectin and hemodynamic abno...

    Authors: Dongling Luo, Pengyuan Chen, Ziyang Yang, Yongheng Fu, Yigao Huang, Hezhi Li, Jimei Chen, Jian Zhuang and Caojin Zhang

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:204

    Content type: Research article

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  43. COVID-19 is an infectious disease caused by a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). The immunopathogenesis of the infection is currently unknown. Healthcare workers (HCWs) are at highest risk of infection and disease.

    Authors: Giovanni Sotgiu, Alessandra Barassi, Monica Miozzo, Laura Saderi, Andrea Piana, Nicola Orfeo, Claudio Colosio, Giovanni Felisati, Matteo Davì, Alberto Giovanni Gerli and Stefano Centanni

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:203

    Content type: Research article

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