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  1. Factors that may increase the risk for delirium and the firm knowledge around mechanism for delirium in noninvasive ventilation (NIV) patients is lacking. We investigated the incidence, characteristics, and ou...

    Authors: Rui Zhang, Linfu Bai, Xiaoli Han, Shicong Huang, Lintong Zhou and Jun Duan

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:157

    Content type: Research article

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  2. The utility of bronchoscopy for patients with suspected immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI)-related pneumonitis is currently debatable. The purpose of this study was to examine the findings of bronchoalveolar la...

    Authors: Osamu Nishiyama, Shigeki Shimizu, Koji Haratani, Kosuke Isomoto, Junko Tanizaki, Hidetoshi Hayashi, Ryo Yamazaki, Takashi Oomori, Yusaku Nishikawa, Akiko Sano, Kazuhiko Nakagawa and Yuji Tohda

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:155

    Content type: Research

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  3. Lefamulin, a first-in-class pleuromutilin antibiotic approved for intravenous and oral use in adults with community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP), was noninferior to moxifloxacin in the Lefamulin Evaluat...

    Authors: Thomas M. File Jr., Elizabeth Alexander, Lisa Goldberg, Anita F. Das, Christian Sandrock, Susanne Paukner and Gregory J. Moran

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:154

    Content type: Research

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  4. Methacholine challenge tests (MCTs) are used to diagnose airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in patients with suspected asthma where previous diagnostic testing has been inconclusive. The test is time consuming a...

    Authors: Michael Peled, David Ovadya, Jennifer Cohn, Lior Seluk, Teet Pullerits, Michael J. Segel and Amir Onn

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:153

    Content type: Research Article

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  5. It is important to assess the prognosis of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD). Recently, it was suggested that diffusing capacity of the lung for...

    Authors: Juwhan Choi, Jae Kyeom Sim, Jee Youn Oh, Young Seok Lee, Gyu Young Hur, Sung Yong Lee, Jae Jeong Shim, Chin Kook Rhee and Kyung Hoon Min

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:152

    Content type: Research

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  6. It is difficult to assess the impact of multiple comorbidities on clinical outcomes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In this study, we aimed to investigate exacerbation-associated comorbidities...

    Authors: Youngmee Kim, Ye-Jee Kim, Yu Mi Kang and Won-Kyung Cho

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:151

    Content type: Research

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  7. Acute exacerbation (AE) is a devastating phenomenon and reported to be complicated with systemic autoimmune disease-associated interstitial lung disease (ILD). The aim of this study was to investigate the inci...

    Authors: Hiroyuki Kamiya and Ogee Mer Panlaqui

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:150

    Content type: Research

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  8. Several studies demonstrate that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is involved in the process of bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Tauroursodeoxycholi...

    Authors: Bin Tong, Lin Fu, Biao Hu, Zhi-Cheng Zhang, Zhu-Xia Tan, Se-Ruo Li, Yuan-Hua Chen, Cheng Zhang, Hua Wang, De-Xiang Xu and Hui Zhao

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:149

    Content type: Research article

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  9. There is limited data available on the use of CPET as a predictive tool for disease outcomes in the setting of IPF. We investigated the feasibility of undertaking CPET and the relationship between CPET and qua...

    Authors: R. Davis, C. Dixon, A. B. Millar, N. A. Maskell and S. L. Barratt

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:147

    Content type: Research

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  10. Transbronchial lung biopsy (TBLB) in the diagnosis of lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is not a common approach, although TBLB is often performed in diffuse lung diseases. We aimed to examine the diagnostic valu...

    Authors: Wenshuai Xu, Han Cui, Hongrui Liu, Ruie Feng, Xinlun Tian, Yanli Yang and Kai-Feng Xu

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:146

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Pirfenidone is an anti-fibrotic agent shown to slow the progression of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). However, its effectiveness in association with serological autoimmune features in IPF remains unclear.

    Authors: Myung Jin Song, Sang Hoon Lee, Ji Ye Jung, Young Ae Kang, Moo Suk Park, Young Sam Kim, Joon Chang and Song Yee Kim

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:145

    Content type: Research

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  12. Pulmonary diseases affect health-related quality of life (HRQoL), but there are few data on patients’ adaptation to a serious illness. This study assessed resilience and its associations with HRQoL, life satis...

    Authors: Siiri Isokääntä, Kirsi Honkalampi, Hannu Kokki, Harri Sintonen and Merja Kokki

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:144

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent complication of community acquired pneumonia (CAP). However, the impact of AKI on in-hospital outcomes of patients with CAP in the Chinese population remains unclear.

    Authors: Dawei Chen, Hongbo Yuan, Changchun Cao, Zhihe Liu, Linglin Jiang, Yan Tan, Ji Ding, Mengqing Ma, Wenjuan Huang and Xin Wan

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:143

    Content type: Research article

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  14. In nonneutropenic patients with underlying respiratory diseases (URD), invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is a life-threatening disease. Yet establishing early diagnosis in those patients remains quite a c...

    Authors: Fei Chen, Yonghong Zhong, Na Li, Huijie Wang, Yanbin Tan, Hao Zhang, Wen Hua, Yanxiong Mao and Huaqiong Huang

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:142

    Content type: Research

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  15. The effects of oral antihyperglycaemic drugs (OADs) for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) on the outcomes of co-existing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients are not well studied. We examined th...

    Authors: Kuan-Yuan Chen, Sheng-Ming Wu, Chien-Hua Tseng, Kang-Yun Lee, Yu-Huei Lin, Hung-Yi Liu and Li-Nien Chien

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:141

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Self-care practice of asthma is the strategy for asthma symptom control and future reduction of exacerbation, but it is poorly implemented in clinical settings due to the patients, professionals, and organizat...

    Authors: Sosna Melkamu Abegaz, Mulugeta Wassie and Abere Woretaw Azagew

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:140

    Content type: Research

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  17. Millions of Americans are living in food deserts in the United States, however the role of the local food environment on COPD has not been studied. The aim of this study is to determine the association between...

    Authors: Eric Moughames, Han Woo, Panagis Galiatsatos, Karina Romero-Rivero, Sarath Raju, Vickram Tejwani, Eric A. Hoffman, Alejandro P. Comellas, Victor E. Ortega, Trisha Parekh, Jerry A. Krishnan, Michael B. Drummond, David Couper, Russell G. Buhr, Robert Paine, Joel D. Kaufman…

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:139

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Pulmonary mucormycosis caused by Mucorales is a highly lethal invasive fungal infection usually found in immunocompromised patients. Isolated pulmonary mucormycosis in immunocompetent patients is very rare. He...

    Authors: Jianhan He, Gaohong Sheng, Huihui Yue, Fengqin Zhang and Hui-Lan Zhang

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:138

    Content type: Case report

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  19. Bronchopleural fistula (BPF) is a relatively rare complication after various types of pulmonary resection. The double-sided mushroom-shaped occluder (Amplatzer device, AD) has been gradually used for BPF block...

    Authors: Jisong Zhang, Huihui Hu, Li Xu, Shan Xu, Jihong Zhu, Fengjie Wu and Enguo Chen

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:137

    Content type: Technical advance

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  20. All over the world, SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia is causing a significant short-term morbidity and mortality, but the medium-term impact on lung function and quality of life of affected patients are still unknown.

    Authors: Pietro Gianella, Elia Rigamonti, Marco Marando, Adriana Tamburello, Lorenzo Grazioli Gauthier, Gianluca Argentieri, Carla Puligheddu, Alberto Pagnamenta, Marco Pons and Tanja Fusi-Schmidhauser

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:136

    Content type: Research

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  21. The surgical lung biopsy (SLB) is the recommended sampling technique when the pathological analysis of the lung is required in the work-up of an interstitial lung disease (ILD) but trans-bronchial lung cryobio...

    Authors: Benjamin Bondue, Pascal Schlossmacher, Nathalie Allou, Virgile Gazaille, Olivier Taton, Pierre Alain Gevenois, Frederic Vandergheynst, Myriam Remmelink and Dimitri Leduc

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:135

    Content type: Research

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  22. Establishment of a mouse model is important for investigating the mechanism of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In this study, we observed and compared the evolution of the pathology in two mouse ...

    Authors: Yue Yang, Tingting Di, Zixiao Zhang, Jiaxin Liu, Congli Fu, Yan Wu and Tao Bian

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:134

    Content type: Research

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  23. Among the challenges for personalizing the management of mechanically ventilated patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19)-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are the effects of different ...

    Authors: Mikuláš Mlček, Michal Otáhal, João Batista Borges, Glasiele Cristina Alcala, Dominik Hladík, Eduard Kuriščák, Leoš Tejkl, Marcelo Amato and Otomar Kittnar

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:133

    Content type: Research

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  24. Complex pleural space infections are commonly managed with antibiotics, pleural drainage, intrapleural fibrinolytic therapy, and surgery. These strategies often utilize radiographic imaging during management, ...

    Authors: Christopher R. Gilbert, Anee S. Jackson, Candice L. Wilshire, Leah C. Horslen, Shu-Ching Chang, Adam J. Bograd, Eric Vallieres and Jed A. Gorden

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:132

    Content type: Research Article

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  25. The extend of lung disease remains the most important prognostic factor for survival in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), and lack of adherence is the main reason for treatment failure. Early detection of de...

    Authors: Stephanie Thee, Mirjam Stahl, Rainald Fischer, Sivagurunathan Sutharsan, Manfred Ballmann, Axel Müller, Daniel Lorenz, Dominika Urbanski-Rini, Franziska Püschner, Volker Eric Amelung, Carola Fuchs and Marcus Alexander Mall

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:131

    Content type: Study protocol

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  26. Although combination therapy is the gold standard for patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), some of these patients are still being treated with monotherapy.

    Authors: Beate Stubbe, Hans-Jürgen Seyfarth, Janina Kleymann, Michael Halank, Hussam Al Ghorani, Anne Obst, Susanna Desole, Ralf Ewert and Christian F. Opitz

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:130

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by incomplete reversible airflow limitation and chronic inflammatory response lesions. This study mainly explored whether FGFR2 and MGAT5 polymorphism...

    Authors: Xiaobo Li, Guangyu Zhou, Xiaobo Tian, Fei Chen, Guoyao Li and Yipeng Ding

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:129

    Content type: Research

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  28. At present, there is no generally accepted comprehensive prognostic risk prediction model for medically treated chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) patients.

    Authors: Ruilin Quan, Yuanhua Yang, Zhenwen Yang, Hongyan Tian, Shengqing Li, Jieyan Shen, Yingqun Ji, Gangcheng Zhang, Caojin Zhang, Guangyi Wang, Yuhao Liu, Zhaozhong Cheng, Zaixin Yu, Zhiyuan Song, Zeqi Zheng, Wei Cui…

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:128

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Complicated parapneumonic effusions and empyema represent advanced stages of pleural infections and are characterized by a high mortality. Medical thoracoscopy is a safe and minimally invasive endoscopic techn...

    Authors: Michele Mondoni, Laura Saderi, Federica Trogu, Silvia Terraneo, Paolo Carlucci, Filippo Ghelma, Stefano Centanni and Giovanni Sotgiu

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:127

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Platypnea-orthodeoxia syndrome (POS) is a rare condition characterized by dyspnoea (platypnea) and arterial desaturation in the upright position resolved in the supine position (orthodeoxia). Intracardiac shun...

    Authors: Charlotte Vanhomwegen, Olivier Taton, Nicolas Selvais, Olivier Vanhove and Dimitri Leduc

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:126

    Content type: Case report

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  31. The identification of NTRK fusions in tumours has become critically important due to the actionable events predictive of response to TRK inhibitor. It is not clear whether the NTRK breakpoint location is diffe...

    Authors: Lei Zhang, Huanhuan Liu, Ye Tian, Huina Wang and Xueying Yang

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:125

    Content type: Case report

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  32. Lung transplant (LTX) can provide a survival benefit and improve physical function for selected patients with advanced pulmonary disease. Sarcopenia is a systemic muscle-failure that can be found in a variety ...

    Authors: Etsuhiro Nikkuni, Takashi Hirama, Kazuki Hayasaka, Sakiko Kumata, Shinichi Kotan, Yui Watanabe, Hisashi Oishi, Hiromichi Niikawa, Masahiro Kohzuki and Yoshinori Okada

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:124

    Content type: Research Article

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  33. The effectiveness of the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) in preventing pneumococcal pneumonia has been controversial.

    Authors: Toshihiro Masuda, Eiji Nakatani, Toshihiro Shirai, Taisuke Akamatsu, Kanami Tamura, Shingo Takahashi, Yuko Tanaka, Hirofumi Watanabe, Yoshinari Endo, Takahito Suzuki, Mika Saigusa, Akito Yamamoto, Satoru Morita, Yoko Sato and Kazuhiro Asada

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:123

    Content type: Research

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  34. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic interstitial lung disease with unclear pathogenesis. IPF is considered as a risk factor for lung cancer. Compared to other lung cancers, small-cell lung cancer ...

    Authors: Xiyue Zhang, Wei Li, Chunyan Li, Jie Zhang and Zhenzhong Su

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:122

    Content type: Case report

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  35. People with cystic fibrosis (pwCF) derive several physiological and psychological benefits from regular physical activity (PA), but the practice is lower than recommended. Knowledge about the facilitators of a...

    Authors: Valentine Filleul, Raphaëlle Ladune, Mathieu Gruet, Charlène Falzon, Amélie Fuchs, Laurent Mély, Meggy Hayotte, Jean-Marc Vallier, Philippe Giovannetti, Sophie Ramel, Anne Vuillemin, Karine Corrion and Fabienne d’Arripe-Longueville

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:121

    Content type: Research Article

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  36. During outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), healthcare providers are facing critical clinical decisions based on the prognosis of patients. Decision support tools of risk stratification are needed ...

    Authors: Jiaqi Huang, Yu Xu, Bin Wang, Ying Xiang, Na Wu, Wenjing Zhang, Tingting Xia, Zhiquan Yuan, Chengying Li, Xiaoyue Jia, Yifan Shan, Menglei Chen, Qi Li, Li Bai and Yafei Li

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:120

    Content type: Research Article

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  37. High serum bilirubin levels have been shown to be associated with an improved pulmonary function test results. Their potential ability to similarly benefit pulmonary function in an environment of polluted air ...

    Authors: Udi Shapira, Rafael Y. Brezinski, Ori Rogowski, David Zeltser, Shlomo Berliner, Itzhak Shapira, Shani Shenhar-Tsarfaty and Elizabeth Fireman

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:119

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Sputum smear conversion is a key indicator of treatment response and reduced infectivity among bacteriologically confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients. This study aimed at estimating sputum smear con...

    Authors: Mulusew Andualem Asemahagn

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:118

    Content type: Research Article

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  39. Extracorporeal life support treatments such as extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) have been recommended for the treatment of severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) patients with coronavirus ...

    Authors: Shiqian Huang, Shuai Zhao, Huilin Luo, Zhouyang Wu, Jing Wu, Haifa Xia and Xiangdong Chen

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:116

    Content type: Review

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  40. Intravesical instillation of bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) as a treatment for superficial bladder cancer rarely causes pulmonary complications. While published cases have been pathologically characterized by ...

    Authors: Mariko Itai, Mari Yamasue, Shuichi Takikawa, Kosaku Komiya, Yukiko Takeno, Yuriko Igarashi, Yasushi Takeshita, Kazufumi Hiramatsu, Satoshi Mitarai and Jun-ichi Kadota

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:115

    Content type: Case report

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  41. A number of studies have examined the association between mold exposure and childhood asthma. However, the conclusions were inconsistent, which might be partly attributable to the lack of consideration of gene...

    Authors: Yu Zhang, Li Hua, Quan-Hua Liu, Shu-Yuan Chu, Yue-Xin Gan, Min Wu, Yi-Xiao Bao, Qian Chen and Jun Zhang

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:114

    Content type: Research Article

    Published on:

  42. Physical activity (PA) is a well-documented and accepted adjunct therapy for the maintenance and improvement of long-term health in cystic fibrosis (CF). Although the benefits of PA for CF populations are well...

    Authors: Nicola Hurley, Niall M. Moyna, Bróna Kehoe, Noel McCaffrey, Karen Redmond and Sarah J. Hardcastle

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:113

    Content type: Research Article

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  43. This study was performed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of atorvastatin in patients with chronic bronchitis, exposed to sulfur mustard gas.

    Authors: Behrooz Momeni, Saeed Nazer, Seyed Masoom Masoompour, Bita Geramizadeh and Seyed Vahid Sajadi

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:112

    Content type: Research article

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  44. SMAD4 has been found to be inactivated to varying degrees in many types of cancer; the purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between SMAD4 expression in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) a...

    Authors: Xiangjun Guo, Mengmeng Li, Xin Wang, Yun Pan and Jiashu Li

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:111

    Content type: Research article

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  45. Hyperglycemic conditions are associated with respiratory dysfunction. Although several studies have reported that insulin resistance (IR) is related to decreased lung function, the association between IR and c...

    Authors: Sang Hyuk Kim, Hyun Sam Kim, Hyang Ki Min and Sung Woo Lee

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:110

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  46. Although repeat pulmonary resection (RPR) for multiple lung cancer has been performed for non-small cell lung cancer and metastatic lung tumor, with the prognostic benefit detailed in several reports, the risk...

    Authors: Nozomu Motono, Shun Iwai, Yoshihito Iijima, Katsuo Usuda and Hidetaka Uramoto

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:109

    Content type: Research article

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  47. While sleep disruption is a common complaint among children with cystic fibrosis (CF), only a few studies have investigated insomnia in adults. The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with ins...

    Authors: Pauline Mulette, Bruno Ravoninjatovo, Camille Guguen, Coralie Barbe, Julien Ancel, Sandra Dury, Antoine Dumazet, Dominique Perdu, Jeanne-Marie Perotin, Thomas Guillard, François Lebargy, Gaëtan Deslee and Claire Launois

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:108

    Content type: Research article

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