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Table 1 Risk factors for sleep apnoea in heart failure.

From: Prevalence and characteristics of sleep apnoea in patients with stable heart failure: Results from a heart failure clinic

  Total (N = 103) With SA (N = 75) Without SA (N = 28) p value
Age (years) 66.0 (57.0-75.0) 66.0 (57.0-75.0) 67.5 (60.2-74.8) 0.70
Male (%) 78.6 85.3 60.7 0.015
BMI (Kg/m 2 ) 27.2 (23.6-30.8) 27.0 (24.0-31.0) 27.4 (22.5-29.6) 0.25
Waist/hip 0.97 (0.92-1.00) 0.98 (0.92-1.02) 0.96 (0.93-1.0) 0.32
Neck circumference (cm) 37.0 (35.0-41.0) 38.0 (35.0-42.0) 35.0 (33.2-38.0) 0.003
Thyromental distance (cm) 7.0 (6.0-8.0) 7.0 (6.0-8.0) 7.0 (5.2-8.0) 0.56
Mallampati C-D (%) 58.3 60.3 53.6 0.70
Smoking (%) 51.5 53.3 46.4 0.69
Drinking (%) 41.7 46.7 28.6 0.15
Snoring (%) 71.8 77.3 57.1 0.08
ESS (score) 5.5 (2.8-10.0) 7.0 (3.0-10.0) 4.0 (1.0-9.0) 0.08
  1. AHI- apnoea-hypopnoea index; BMI- body-mass index; ESS- Epworth sleepiness scale.
  2. Continuous data are expressed as median and interquartile range.