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Table 1 Characteristics of included studies in the systematic review

From: Beta-blocker use and COPD mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Study Design Sample size and cohort description Type of BB Relative Risk* Covariates
Short (2011) [8] Retrospective Cohort 5,977 COPD patients in Scotland Cardio-selective 0.78 (0.67-0.92) CAD and Respiratory disease, age, sex, diabetes, smoking, FEV1, cardiovascular drugs
Au (2004) [6] Retrospective Cohort 1966-Veteran Affairs Cohort with COPD Not specified 0.57 (0.33-0.89) Comorbidity, age, history of COPD, bronchodilators, smoking, coronary artery disease, diabetes
Dransfield (2008) [5] Retrospective Cohort 825 subjects admitted to hospital for COPD Not specified 0.39 (0.14-0.99) Age, CHD, CHF, Liver disease, COPD exacerbations, malignancy, smoking, FEV
Rutten (2007) [9] Retrospective Cohort Electronic records of 2,230 patients with COPD in the Netherlands Selective and non-selective 0.68 (95% -0.56-0.83), for all BBs: 0.67 (0.55-0.83) for B1 selective BBs. 0.82 (0.61-1.10) for non-selective BBs Age, sex, diabetes, hypertension, CAD, CVD drugs, pulmonary drugs
Gottlieb (1998) [11] Retrospective Cohort 41,814 COPD subjects with previous history of myocardial infarction Not specified 0.60 (0.57-0.63) Not specified
Staszewsky (2007) [12] Retrospective Cohort 628 subjects with class II-IV Heart Failure and COPD Not specified 0.55 (0.37-0.82) Not specified
Van Gestel (2008) [13] Retrospective Cohort 1,205 with vascular disease and COPD in Netherlands Cardio-selective 0.73 (0.60-0.88) Age, sex, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes, renal function, smoking, BMI, CAD, FEV1, cardiovascular drugs
Chen (2001) [14] Retrospective Cohort 43,974 subjects with previous history of myocardial infarction and COPD or Asthma Not specified 0.86 (0.73-1.0) Age, gender, co-morbidities, CAD, cardiovascular drugs, physician speciality
Hawkins (2009) [15] Retrospective Cohort 1,258 patients with COPD and previous history of MI Not specified 0.74 (0.68-0.80) Not specified
  1. * = Relative risk and 95% confidence interval for beta-blocker use and mortality in COPD.